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   6. In 1819 a convention with Great Britain was ratified, securing to citizens of the United States, with some restriction, the right of fishing on the coast of British America, and establishing parallel 49o north as the boundary between the United States and British America, from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. The same year Spain agreed to relinquish Florida1 to the United States, on the condition that the American government should Sketchpay to citizens of the United States five millions of dollars, due them from Spain, and give up all claim to the present State of Texas.
   Two years later, Spain ratified the treaty, and at the same time the boundary between the Louisiana Purchase2 and the Spanish province of Mexico was defined.
The president, in his annual message to Congress, December, 1823, alluding to the Spanish colonies of America, recently recognized as sovereign powers, declared that "the American continents, by the free and independent position which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." He also declared that it is impossible for the powers of Europe to "extend their political system to any portion of either continent without endangering our peace and happiness," and that "it is equally impossible, therefore, that we should behold such interposition, in any form, with indifference." This has since been known as the Monroe doctrine, the authorship of which, however, belonged to the secretary of state, John Quincy Adams.
In August, 1824, Lafayette came to the United States as the guest of the nation whose independence he had assisted in gaining with his blood and his fortune. He visited each of the twenty-four states, and was everywhere received with enthusiastic greetings of gratitude and joy. He remained in the country a little more than a year, and when ready to return, the president3 placed at his disposal a frigate, named, in compliment to him, Brandywine,4 to carry him back to France. Congress manifested still further their appreciation of his services by voting him a township of land and two hundred thousand dollars.
   9. When the time came to choose a successor to Mr. Monroe, four candidates were in the field, neither of whom received a majority of the electoral vote. The choice then

   1 See p. 206, ¶ 13, and note 1.      2 See p. 166 ¶
   3. John Quincy Adams, who had succeeded to the presidency during Lafayette's visit.
   4 See p. 125, ¶ 14.

   QUESTIONS. -- 6. What convention was ratified with England in 1819? What was secured and what established by this convention? When did Florida come into the possession of the United States? On what condition? What boundary was defined at the same time? 7. What is the Monroe doctrine? 8. What can you tell of Lafayette's visit to the United States? 9. At the next presidential election how many candidates were in the field?



devolved on the House of Representatives,1 and that body elected John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts, president. John Caldwell Calhoun,2 of South Carolina, was chosen vice president by the electors.
   The candidates were General Jackson, then a United States senator, Mr. Adams, secretary of state, William H. Crawford, secretary of the treasury, and Henry Clay, the speaker of the House of Representatives.3

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Sketch   1. EARLY in this administration the question of the supremacy of the nation over the state -- a question that frequently meets us during this period5 -- was again forced upon the people, by a controversy with Georgia concerning the Creek lands.
   In pursuance of a treaty, obtained, without the consent of the Creeks, from a few of their chiefs, Georgia determined to remove these Indians by force from the lands they occupied, and in 1827 declared her intention to resist the authority of the United States, Which had been interposed, by the president, to protect the Creeks. The difficulty was, however, adjusted for the time, the Indians consenting to remove beyond the Mississippi, in consideration of a large annuity to be paid them from the national treasury.
   2. The fiftieth anniversary of the national independence, July 4, 1826,Sketch was made specially memorable by the deaths of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, which occurred on that day. The coincidences of the lives of these eminent patriots were strikingly com-

   1 See Appendix, p. 16. Art. XII., Amendments Const. U. S.      2 See p. 171, ¶ 2.
3 They had respectively, ninety-nine, eighty-four, forty-one, and thirty-seven electoral votes.
4 In the House of Representatives, thirteen states voted for Mr. Adams. see Appendix, p. 20.
5 See p. 165, ¶ 5; p. 197, ¶ 8; p. 198, ¶ 9; p. 227, ¶ 10, and p. 232, ¶¶ 5, 6.

   QUESTIONS. -- Who was elected president for the next term? Vice-president? What is said of Mr. Adams's election? Chap. VI. 1. What question was forced upon the people early in Adams's administration? By what controversy? -- Give an account of this controversy and its adjustment? 2. For what is the fiftieth anniversary of the national independence memorable?



pleted in the coincidence of their deaths. Both were early enlisted in their country's cause. Both were bold, ardent, unyielding patriots. Where others doubted, they were resolved; where others hesitated, they pressed forward. They were both members of the committee to prepare the Declaration of Independence, and they constituted the sub-committee appointed by the other members to make the draugbt of it. Jefferson was the author of the Declaration; Adams its great supporter on the floor of Congress. Both had been ministers abroad; both vice-presidents, and both presidents; both had lived to a great age.1
   3. The policy of protecting home manufactures, by imposing heavy duties upon articles of the same kind imported, was carried to its height, under the name of the American system, by Sketchthe tariff of 1828. All assent to the propriety of levying duties for revenue merely, but the principle of a protective tariff, nearly ever since the passage of this act, has been a subject of contention between political parties. Having the most of its friends in the manufacturing Northern and Middle States, and the most of its enemies in the agricultural South, it has proved a fruitful source of sectional strife.
This administration, more than any preceding it, fostered measures of internal improvement. State and individual enterprise took the same direction. While Mr. Adams was president the first railroad in the United States was completed; 2 and New York, chiefly through the exertions of her distinguished son, De Witt Clinton, opened the Erie Canal, which became the highway to the grain fields of the west.
The country had never enjoyed greater prosperity than during the presidency of Mr. Adams. The national debt was rapidly diminishing, and the national treasury held a surplus of over five millions of dollars. Yet Mr. Adams failed of a reëlection. The era of good feeling had passed away, and party spirit again burst forth with increased bitterness.
   At the next presidential election, Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, after a contest of unexampled violence, was chosen president, and Mr. Calhoun was reëlected vice-president.

   1 Adams was nearly ninety-one, Jefferson nearly eighty-three.
   2 The first railroad in the United States was in Quincy, Massachusetts, and was completed in 1827. The first steam locomotive used in the United states was put on the road from Carbondale to Honesdale, Pennsylvania, by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, in 1829.

   QUESTIONS. -- What coincidences of the lives of Adams and Jefferson can you mention? 3. What is meant by the American system? To what do all assent? What has been the subject of contention between political parties? Why was the protective tariff a source of sectional strife? 4. What is said of internal improvement? 5. Of the country during Mr. Adams's presidency? Of party spirit? -- Who were elected president and vice-president for the next term?





Sketch   1. PRESIDENT Jackson, on entering upon the duties of his high position, removed from office2 many of those who had opposed his election, and appointed his political adherents in their stead; thus giving his administration, at the outset, a more strictly party character than had been attempted by his predecessors. This has continued to be the policy of each new administration.
   2. In his domestic policy, Jackson was opposed to devoting the public revenue to internal improvements, and in several instances interposed his veto3 to arrest congressional appropriations for that purpose, believing them to be unconstitutional and inexpedient. His foreign policy was bold and vigorous.
The payment of indemnities for spoliation of American commerce4 was secured, and, except from France, without difficulty. This nation had acknowledged the justice of the American claim to five millions of dollars, but refused to make appropriation for payment. At this, the president proposed that reprisals should be made upon French property till the American claim was liquidated. Affairs seemed threatening, when both nations agreed to accept the proffered mediation of Great Britain. Meanwhile, France appropriated the money, and the claim was paid.
   3. The subject of Indian removals5 had not ceased to disturb the country. First a difficulty arose between Georgia

   1 see Appendix, p. 20.
   2 During he first year of this administration, there were nearly seven hundred removals from office not including subordinate clerks. During the forty years preceding, there had been sixty-four.
   3 see Appendix, p. 10, Sec. VII., Art. I., Const. U. S.
   4 By Denmark, Naples, Portugal, Spain, and France.      5 See p. 193, 11.

   QUESTIONS. -- 1. How did Jackson, at the outset, give his administration a party character? 2. What is said of Jackson's domestic policy? Of his foreign policy? -- What trouble arose with France? What did the president propose? How was the trouble settled? 3. What is said of Indian removals? What difficulty first arose?



and the Cherokees1 within her borders, which was not finally adjusted till the next administration.
These Indians had made considerable advance in civilization. Contrary to law, as interpreted by the Supreme Court,2 Georgia attempted to drive them from their lands. The president and Congress sided with the state. The agent sent to aid in the removal of the Indians was General Scott who, by his conciliatory policy, induced them to migrate peaceably.
   4. In the spring of 1832, a war, known as the Black Hawk war, broke out on the north-Sketchwestern frontier, with some tribes led by the celebrated Black Hawk, a chief of the Sacs.3 This war resulted in the removal of the Indians farther westward.
A campaign against them, by Unite States troops and Illinois militia,4 under Generals Scott and Atkinson, gained for the United States a large portion of the present Iowa and Wisconsin, and drove the Indians beyond the Mississippi. Black Hawk was taken prisoner.
   5. Near the close of 1835 arose war with the Seminoles,5 under the famous warrior SketchOsceola -- a war more formidable than any in which the United States had ever engaged with the Indians. It was seven years be fore the savages were subdued.6
The cause of the war was ax attempt to remove the Seminoles, in Florida, to lands, west of the Mississippi in accordance with a treaty, the validity of which the Indians denied. The war extended its ravages into Georgia and Alabama. Many of the Creeks joined the Seminoles. From their skulking places in the swamps and the Everglades, where poisonous vapors and venomous reptiles defended them from pursuit, they would dash upon the settlements to rob, murder, and destroy.

   1 See p. 23, note (See. V.).    2 See Appendix, p. 13. Secs. I., II., Art. Ill., Const. U. S.
   3 See p 22 note (See 11., 12).
   4 In this war Abraham Lincoln was captain of a company of Illinois volunteers, Jefferson Davis a lieutenant in the United States regulars. See p 227, ¶¶ 9., 11.
   5 See p 22, note (See. IV., 2).      6 In 1842, during Tyler's administration.

   QUESTIONS. -- Give an account of this difficulty and its settlement? 4. What war broke out in 1832 and where? Result? -- What farther is said of this war? 5. What war arose in 1835? Under what famous warrior? What is said of this war? -- Cause of the war? Where did its ravages extend?



   6. At the opening of the war (December 28), Major Dade and more than a hundred men were waylaid near the Wahoo Swamp, and all but four killed. On the same day, the United States agent, General Thompson, and five others, in view of the garrison at Fort King, were set upon, slain, and scalped, by Osceola and a party of Indians. Osceola thus satiated his revenge for an imprisonment he had suffered at the hands of the agent. Soon after, General Clinch marched from Fort Drane against the Indians, and, after defeating them, returned to the fort. The next February, General Gaines came to his assistance, and another action took Sketchplace, in which the savages were again worsted, near Clinch's battle-ground. The following summer, General Scott marched into the Creek Country, subdued the Indians there, and sent several thousands of them beyond the Mississippi. The Seminoles continued the war. In SketchOctober, 1837, General Jessup, then in command in Florida, seized the treacherous Osceola, whom no oath could bind nor treaties restrain, while approaching the American camp under a flag of truce, and sent him a prisoner to Fort Moultrie.1 The capture of their leader, though a severe blow to the Seminoles, did not end the war. Colonel Taylor2 pursued them into their almost inaccessible hiding places, and beat them in a hard-fought battle, December 25, 1837, near Lake Okechobee, in the southern part of Florida. After this, several able officers took their turns in pacifying and fighting the Seminoles, before they were brought to terms.3
   7. In 1832, that terrible pestilence, the Asiatic cholera, made its first appearance in America, beginning in Canada, and thence sweeping over the United States.
   8. This administration was more severely tried than any that had preceded it, by the dangerous dogma of state rights.
   The relative powers of the nation and the state came up for discussion in Congress during the winter of 1829-30. Daniel Webster,4 then a

   1 See Map, p. 137.      2 See p. 174, note 4, and pp. 208-213.
3 Colonels Taylor and Worth, ad Lieutenants Robert Anderson, J. E. Johnston, and George H. Thomas were among those promoted for gallantry in this war.      4 See p. 181, ¶ 24.

   QUESTIONS. -- 6. Give an account of the massacre near Wahoo Swamp. Near Fort King. Of the action near Fort Drane. What was done by General Scott in the summer? What was done by General Jessup in 1837? What by Colonel Taylor? What further is said of the war? What is said of the Asiatic cholera? 8. How was this administration severely tried?

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