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old and in the Sunflower state he spent his early youth living with his parents on a farm. William was sent to the excellent public school near his home, thus laying the foundation for a good, practical education, which was continued in the Nebraska schools upon the return of the family to this state in 1886, when they became pioneer settlers of Custer county, locating near the town of Lomax. The father improved his land, made an effort to establish his family in comfort and they weathered the privations and hardships incident to settlement in a new country as well as the years of drought, insect pests and blizzards. William earned his first money pulling weeds when a small boy and also by hoeing corn so that he knew well its value. When the Cory family came to the Panhandle in 1890, locating in Alliance, William found a position in a news stand conducted by the Miller brothers, where he began to learn business and really laid the foundation for his commercial career. On December 22, 1902, Mr. Cory was married at Old Canton, Nebraska, to Miss Mary E. Clayton, who is a native of Illinois, the daughter of George H. and Emma (Forbes) Clayton, the former a Missourian by birth, while Mrs. Clayton was born in Illinois. Mr. Clayton was a well known ranchman of this section and Mrs. Cory after finishing the country schools came to Alliance and graduated from the high school. Seven children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Cory: Leslie P., in the Hemingford high school; George T., and Merle, both in school; Jessie May, deceased and Wilma L., Glen E., and Ruthelin, also deceased. A year after his marriage Mr. Cory took a homestead of six hundred and forty acres twenty-eight miles southwest. of Hemingford, where he established his family, erected a good home and made substantial improvements for farm work. He soon had his land broke, under cultivation, and his boyhood experience as a farmer aided him in becoming one of the practical and prosperous men of his section, but he had been in business and desiring many more advantages for his family than could be had in the country, decided to again enter commercial life and after six years on the farm came to Hemingford in 1909, to establish one of the leading haberdashery shops and jewelry stores of the upper valley. Naturally courteous and cordial Mr. Cory soon built up a fine trade that was most gratifying from a financial point of view as be felt that he was being well repaid for the thought, study and work he put into the business. He owns the fine brick building, twenty-five by a hundred feet, which houses his stock, which is one of the representative business houses of the town, also owns a fine home where he and his wife dispense a cordial hospitality to their friends. Mr. Cory has become widely known for his thrift, foresight in financial affairs and for giving his customers a "square deal." He and his wife are members of the Methodist church and his fraternal affiliations are with the Odd Fellows.

   FREDERICK W. MELICK, one of the progressive business men of Box Butte county who is engaged in the commission business at Hemingford, where he handles flour, grain and buys and sells potatoes and stock, is a native son of Nebraska, born at Bennett, Lancaster county, October 21, 1878, the son of Frank and Christiana (Larson) Melick, the former a native of Hunderton county, New Jersey. Frederick was the second in a good old fashioned family of ten children so that at an early age he began to assume many responsibilities, such as looking after and protecting the younger children who were often placed in his charge. Frank Melick was one of the pioneer settlers of southwest Kansas, as he took up a homestead and the boy spent his childhood and early youth on the farm. He grew up under the strict discipline of agricultural demands so that he was thrifty, industrious and well able to cope with the many emergencies that arise on a frontier homestead. His father encouraged him in his early attempts to make money by making him a partner when they took cattle to graze, so that the boy was given charge of the herding which he usually had to do on foot and recounts with a smile that many a time when he was far from the house all he had for his lunch was a few cactus pears which he himself gathered from the prairie. Mr. Melick says that his early educational advantages were few and rather far apart, as he worked for about nine months of the year and was able to attend school during the three winter months when it was impossible to work on the land. But he made the most of every opportunity and laid the foundation for a good practical education that has been of inestimable advantage to him in his business life. When he attained his majority, Mr. Melick determined to start out in life independently and went to work on the Santa Fe Railroad in Kansas, where he gained a knowledge of business which has proved of benefit. On December 22, 1901, Mr., Melick was married at Bennett, Nebraska to Miss Alice Canfield, a native daughter of that town, whose parents were



Leman and Ida Mae (Barsock) Canfield, the former born in Hundertown county, New Jersey. She was the oldest in a family of twelve children. Mr. and Mrs. Melick have one daughter, Marguerite, a student in the Hemingford school. In 1901, Mr. Melick came to Nebraska and located on a farm in Lancaster county, where he engaged in farming for six years, but he heard of the many good opportunities to secure land in Box Butte county so came here in 1907, buying a hundred and sixty acre tract one mile southwest of Hemingford. There he demonstrated what a good reliable man can accomplish who makes a study of his business and is determined to succeed. After about six years Mr. Melick had accumulated considerable capital and gave up the active management of his farm and moved into town, where he invested in a good grain business, buying and selling flour, potatoes and live stock, and soon had a paying commission business established which has brought in most gratifying returns. In 1917, Mr. Melick purchased the Hemingford Rolling Mills, which he now manages in addition to his other business activities. The business has expanded rapidly and today Mr. Melick is the largest wheat and potato shipper in the Panhandle and the northwest for he sells hundreds of car load lots each season. Mr. Melick is popular in financial circles, where he has gained an excellent reputation as a wide awake, progressive man of affairs, while personally he has made many warm friends. He is a Mason of high standing, having taken his Thirty-second degree. No opportunity slips through his fingers that be sees in business while he is one of the true Americans who live their patriotism, giving freely of time and money for the upbuilding of the community in which he lives and Box Butte county.

   ROBERT C. MILLER, one of the younger generation of business men of Hemingford, who are the makers of financial history in this section, may truly be called self-made, as his present prosperity has come to him through his own efforts, and his life record exemplifies what may be accomplished by industry and perseverence (sic). He is one of the gallant Nebraskans who responded to his country's call when war was declared against Germany, and enlisted in the aviation branch of the service.
  Russell Miller is a native son of Nebraska and of Box Butte county, as he was born in Alliance, May 11, 1896, the son of Melvin L. and Grace A. (Shaffer) Miller, the former a native of Illinois. Russell is the oldest of the two children in the family as he had a younger sister, Irene. Melvin Miller was connected with railroad work which necessitated his moving to Martinton, Illinois, when Russell was only two years old. The boy was sent to the graded schools and after finishing the elementary courses spent four years at the Martinton high school, graduating near the head of the class in 1912. The following year the young man returned to Nebraska to accept a position with his grandfather who owned the Hemingford mill, For two years Mr. Miller kept the books of the firm before accepting a very advantageous offer to become associated with the Farmers Lumber Yard here, of which Alexander Murhead was manager and remained with that company until he enlisted in the army on December 12, 1917, and was sent to. Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas, having been assigned to the Air Service, 662 Aero Squadron. He remained in this branch until after the signing of the Armistice, receiving his discharge January 30, 1919. During the terrible epidemic of Spanish Influenza that swept over the country the winter of 1918, Mr. Miller was in the hospital from December 10, 1918, to January 10, 1919. After leaving the army he came back home and like so many of the discharged men desired to go into business for himself. While at Kelly Field he had studied the construction and operation of motors and as the automobile business is a flourishing one everywhere now days, Mr. Miller saw a good opening in this line and on June 23, 1919, purchased the garage and stock of George Hedgecock. He at once added to the building and equipment, and now has a brick building fifty by one hundred and thirty feet, giving him a large floor space for storage, work shop and display rooms, as he is local agent for several of the best makes of cars, among them the Chandler, Cleveland and Ford. In connection with his sales force he conducts a fine up-to-date repair shop, sells gasoline and several lubricating oils and maintains one of the best and most prompt auto liveries in the upper valley. The Miller Garage handles several lines of the best tires on the market, while his business of storing and caring for cars is rapidly growing. Mr. Miller is a fine machinist and few troubles to which autos are subject can not be put right under his skillful direction. Due to his thorough training and ability his repair work has been on the increase from the first while his courtesy, consideration and reputation for prompt service have built up all branches of the business. From the fine start he has made in this chosen vocation nothing but a bright fu-



ture can be in store for this young, energetic and far sighted man.
   On May 17, 1916, Mr. Miller was married at Hemingford to Miss Edna Geiger, born in York, Nebraska, the daughter of Charles and Nora (Grass) Geiger, the former a native of Michigan. Mrs. Miller was the second of their three children and has one child of her own, Marjorie Aleene.

    PHILIP J. MICHAEL, one of the younger generation of businessmen of Box Butte county is also a leading and prominent real estate and insurance man of this vicinity who has been identified with numerous financial enterprises in Hemingford where he has established a high reputation for ability, judgment and the "push" which characterizes the Nebraskan the country over. He is a native son of the state and of Box Butte county and since he entered business his rise has been rapid, sure and consistent. Mr. Michael was born near Hemingford, December 9, 1888, the son of Philip and Etta (Strange) Michael, the former a Hoosier by birth while the mother is a native of Illionis (sic). Philip was the sixth in their family of nine children. Philip Michael, Sr., was a farmer by vocation who came to Nebraska in 1885, and became one of the pioneer settlers of Box Butte county, as he drove across country from Iowa settling southwest of Hemingford when this country was sparsely settled, and practically an unbroken wilderness covered with buffalo grass and prairie flowers. The family settled on their pioneer farm near the frontier, built the regulation sod house for a home, made necessary shelters for their stock, broke their land as soon as possible and put in the crops that would provide them with some food. Those first years here on the high prairies were hard one for the early settlers; money was scarce, drought killed much of the crops, and what was left in many cases the grasshoppers ate up and many cattle died during the winter blizzards, but Mr. Michael was stout hearted, believed that there was to be a great future for this country and held on. For the first years he made money to buy provisions by freighting from Nonpariel to Valentine, a hundred and fifty miles away, and in this manner managed to hold down his claim and prove up on his land when many of the settlers became discouraged or were forced to leave or starve. Water was the great and important question of the pioneers of this region and Mr. Michael had to haul his for many miles both for his family use and to water his stock, until wells were sunk on his farm.
   Philip, Jr., was born on the old homestead, grew up in the new country resourceful and self-reliant as any boy on the frontier had to be, as many occasions arose when he had to take care of himself and also cope with unexpected conditions. He was a hardy, healthy lad, who soon began to assume many duties about the farm, working as his years and strength permitted and so learned the practical side of farm business from his father while he attended the district school nearest his home in winter time and laid the foundation for a good practical education. After finishing the elementary department in the country the boy entered the high school at Hemingford, graduating from the four years course. Early Philip had learned the value of money as he was but ten years of age when he began to work on a farm for ten dollars a month and after earning over seventy dollars invested it in a colt which he attempted to break but the horse became frightened and bolted through a four wire fence, broke its leg and had to be killed, but fortunately Philip came through without a scratch though he got a good shake up in the fall. The colt had to be killed but the boy felt he was lucky to get off so well. Philip remained at home with his parents, helping his father on the farm until he was twenty years old, when he determined to establish himself independently in business and accepted a position as yard man with the Forest Lumber Company, was soon promoted to manager and remained with this concern until 1911. He saw the many openings for building and real estate in this rapidly growing section and resigned. With William M. Pruden he formed a partnership in a real estate and insurance business, also handling life insurance as a side line. These young men are both progressive in ideas and methods and have proved by their rapid rise in the financial circles of the county that they are able and competent men in business. In 1919, they built a fine office building with over a thousand square feet of floor space where they now conduct their large business which can best be described as "rushing," where the handling of realty is concerned. The Michael family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, while Mr. Michael is a member of the Masonic order and Odd Fellows. November 18, 1909, Mr. Michael was married at Hemingford. to Miss Etta M. Kinsley, a native daughter of Nebraska, whose parents were Noah and Harriet (Kirkendall) Kinsley, both Hoosiers. One child has been born to Mr. and Mrs. Michael, Audrey, now six years old.



   JOHN T. GARVEY, railroad contractor, miner, veteran of the Confederate army and early settler, is probably one of the oldest men living within the confines of Box Butte county who has witnessed the many changes that have taken place on the plains and especially in the Panhandle since the western part of the state of Nebraska was the frontier. His career has been one in which he has had varied and interesting experiences from trailing maurading (sic) Indians who raided his camp to the development and civilization of modern days, and few men show so little the scars of such a hazardous life. Mr. Garvey was born in Ash county, North Carolina, May 20, 1845, the son of John and Polly (Doerty) Garvey, both natives of North Carolina, where they were reared, educated and later met and married. John was the youngest of the two boys born to his parents. His father was a farmer and the boy spent his childhood and youth in the healthy country environment, growing up strong and willing to work, for he helped his father in the summer time and attended the school near his home during the winter terms. Like most farm boys he wished money of his own and to obtain it dug gensing, a root which is greatly prized by the Chinese as a medicine. This he sold for fifty cents a pound, and some of his first money was spent for a spelling book which indicates that while a small boy he was ambitious. John remained at home to assist his father with the work on the farm until 1861, when he enlisted in Company B, Sixth Confederate Cavalry, and took his part with the Confederacy in the Civil War. Mr. Garvey participated in many of the most bitterly fought battles of the war. He was at the battle of Nebern, Fort Croxton and Kenston, then was transferred to Tennessee and Kentucky, took part in the actions at the King Salt Works, Abington, Morristown and later in the engagements of Bluntsville, Rogersville, Pound Gap, Cumberland Gap, Strawberry Plain, Janesville, Thorn Hill, and the sieges of Knoxville, Chattanooga, and Nashville. After peace was declared he surrendered with the other members of his company at Newbern, North Carolina, on February 25, 1865. Taking the oath of allegiance he was again a citizen of the United States and went to Louisville, Kentucky, but like so many of the returned soldiers he was restless and the vocation of pre-war times was not satisfactory, so he decided to seek what fortune had in store for him on the western frontier and came to Omaha, making the trip on the boat that carried the first load of railroad iron for the building of the Union Pacific Railroad. Mr. Garvey remained in Omaha until 1867, when he bought a large number of government horses and engaged as a contractor to do grade work on the Union Pacific on the right of way from Omaha to North Platte, under the supervision of Cane, Collins and Kennedy, constructing and contracting engineers. For eight months he was engaged in this work when a band of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians rode into the herd of horses belonging to the graders at the camp on the present site of the town of North Platte, stampeded the two hundred and eighty head and drove them off in a northwestern direction toward the "sweet grass hills." Soldiers from Fort McPherson were sent out to regain the horses but failed as the Indians had planned the attack well, having drawn three days' rations at Braidy (sic) Island, the end of the railroad at that time. This broke things up for Mr. Garvey so he and his cousin, T. C. Garvey, bought a couple of pack ponies and decided to hazard their fortunes in the newly opened gold fields. They joined an emigrant train which was crossing the plains and Mr. Garvey says that he walked beside his pony all the way from North Platte to Helena, Montana, with the exception of three miles. Arriving at the latter city on November 19, 1867, they went to work in the placer mines, staked out their claims, and were engaged in mining from 1867 to 1871. Mr. Garvey then went farther south and worked in the "Ore Knob" copper mine for about six years, gaining valuable experience in mining. He had returned to Nebraska at just about the time gold was discovered in the Black Hills and joined in the stampede to that locality. A picture of his bull team taken just after Mr. Garvey left Deadwood is to be found in this history. The "diggings" did not prove as worthwhile as Mr. Garvey anticipated and in disgust he left and returned to Deadwood where he was engaged in business for nine years, running a delivery and dray concern. On June 11, 1872, Mr. Garvey was married at his old home in Ash county, to Rachel A. Johnson, the daughter of Aaron and Jane (Tomblin) Johnson, the former a native of Ash county, born in Blueridge. Five children were born to this union: James H., who is employed by the Standard Oil Company, is married and lives in Chicago; Laura who married James H. Prophet, is dead; Walter T., Naomi E., and Grace E., are all deceased. Mrs. Garvey died December 28, 1879, and on December 28, 1900, Mr. Garvey was married in Box Butte county, to Miss Johanna John-

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