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here for which they had traded until they sold out and went to Colorado. Mrs. Hatterman and her older sister had to help break the land and do other work on the farm so that she has experienced all the privations and hardships of frontier life to the full. Today Mr. and Mrs. Hatterman are well fixed with a good productive farm. Mr. Hatterman is independent in his political views, has been treasurer of his school district for the past fourteen years, is a member of the Methodist Church at Day, and also belongs to the Farmers Union at Big Springs, holding stock in the Farmers Elevator and Farmers Store. He is a substantial and reliable business man of progressive methods and ideas.

   CHARLES F. MANNING. -- While many business enterprises, are desirable and even necessary in a community and may be carried on with more or less care as to safety and satisfactory results, the business of the druggist is regulated by stern laws and he is no less responsible for the health and life of his patrons than is the physician whose prescriptions he puts up. Bridgeport is fortunate in having a pharmacist in whom full reliance can be placed in Charles F. Manning, who has been a druggist all his business life, and since the summer of 1914 has been established in this city. Mr. Manning was born in Mercer county, Missouri, December 9, 1864, the son of Marshall Green and Carolina Virginia (Myers) Manning, who were reared and married in Missouri. They had four children, the two survivors being Charles F. and his older brother, Oscar G., who is a retired merchant living at David City, Nebraska. In 1870 the parents of Mr. Manning came to Nebraska and homsteaded (sic) in Butler county. For a number of years the family lived on the farm, then moved to David City where the father died and where the mother still lives. Quite recently she sold her farm of eighty acres for $20,000. Both parents were members of the Christian church. In politics the father was a Democrat. During the Civil war he was a member of the Home Guards in Butler county, and at one time held an official position.
   Charles F. Manning attended the public schools in Butler county and when sixteen years old became a clerk in a drug store and a student of pharmacy, and later owned a drug store at David City, which he sold in 1902, but bought another store at Bayard. In the meanwhile he homesteaded in Morrill county and resided on his farm for four years, keeping in touch, however, with his profession, and in 1908 he came to Bridgeport and entered Dr. Anderson's drug store, where he remained five years, then purchased and operated a drug store at Lincoln for ten months. After disposing of his Lincoln business he bought another at Nebraska City which he moved to Bridgeport on August 1, 1914. He carries a full assortment of the most reliable goods in his line, pure drugs and patent medicines, together with the articles which the public has learned to expect in a druggist's exhibit. He has a very attractive store and it is one of the representative business centers of the city.
   In 1884 Charles F. Manning was united in marriage to Miss Paulina E. Hainline, who was born in Illinois. Her parents, Obed Hainline and wife now reside in Los Angeles, California. The father formerly was a successful farmer in Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Manning have had two children: Thornton Benton, who was born September 10, 1885, at David City and educated there, is now his father's assistant in the drug store; and Jesse F., who died at Bayard, Nebraska, at the age of thirteen years. The family belongs to the Christian church. In his political views a staunch Democrat, Mr. Manning has always been a loyal party man. While a resident of David City he served as city treasurer and at the present time is a member of the town council of Bridgeport. Mrs. Manning is a member of the Eastern Star, in which order she has been very prominent. For fifty-one years her father has been a Mason and she is past matron of Bridgeport Chapter No. 260, having held that office two years and also served as the third matron after the chapter was established here.

   FRANK E. JOHNSON, well known stockman of Garden county, is a member of a pioneer family that ran the full gamut of privations and hardships incident to life on the frontier. He was born in Sweden, January 17, 1871, the son of John G. and Lottie Johnson, both natives of Sweden, where the father was a farmer. The family came to the United States in 1882, locating first in Iowa but two years later came to Nebraska and took up a homestead in old Cheyenne county, that part which has since been erected as Garden county, where they lived until 1915, when Mr. Johnson retired and went to Denver to live. He died in May, 1916, and his wife still resides in that city. There were nine children in the family: Emma, the wife of Harry Geier, of Denver; one deceased; Charles, of Denver; Lenius, deceased; Gust, deceased; Teckla, the



wife of August Geier of Denver; one deceased in infancy; Oscar, of Garden county, and Frank of this review.
   When the family came here they began their farm work with a borrowed pony team; there were no crops the first year so the father went to work as a section hand on the railroad, while the mother took care of the family and hauled water from three to sixteen miles and managed things as best she could. Once she was caught in a blizzard and spent the night alone in the manger of a barn to keep from freezing. They suffered much from droughts, grass hoppers and hail storms, but remained and became prosperous by raising cattle.
   Frank Johnson was educated in Sweden until the family came to this country when he was twelve years old and then attended the frontier schools when he could. He took up a homestead but soon sold and went to Denver; worked as a farmer and dairyman there for four years before becoming a motorman on he street railway. Three years later, returning to Garden county, Mr. Johnson bought a farm and now is the proprietor of more than eleven hundren (sic) acres, five hundred of which is in pasture. He has gained a reputation for breeding Hereford cattle and Belgian horses, also Poland China hogs, and today is regarded as one of the substantial business men of his district. His farm is well improved and for years he has used the latest machinery. In politics he is a Republican and for fourteen years has been treasurer of school district No. 40. He is a member of the Farmers Union of Garden county.
   November 15, 1899, Mr. Johnson married Miss Anna Anderson, of Minnesota, and seven children have been born to this union: Gladys, Mildred, Ellen Violet, Evelyn, Loraine and Loes (sic), all at home.

    ANDREW J. WALRATH, well known in western Nebraska and eastern Colorado during the early days as rancher, range rider, Indian scout and sharp shooter, is one of the few men left in this section who took part in the stirring events before settlement and railroads had civilized the great plains. He was, born at Lodi, Boone county, New York, in August, 1850, the son of Andrew J. and Amanda (Stulphen) Walrath. The father was a horse buyer, knew his business well and commanded a large salary. He and his wife spent their lives in New York. They were the parents of two children but Mr. Walrath is he only one in his locality. His father and mother were members of the Baptist Church and highly respected in their community.
   Andrew Walrath was educated in the public schools of Cherry Valley, New York, and began his independent career when only sixteen years of age, going to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and then to Laramie. He began to work for the Union Pacific Road in 1867, at Evans, Colorado, the end of the line, also checking freight for a line that ran cars to Denver, the motive power being mules and oxen. Later the railroad was constructed to Denver and the Evans office discontinued. In 1871, Mr. Walrath established his first ranch, the "Walrath Double 00 Ranch," six miles east of Julesburg. Mr. Walrath took an active part in the frontier life, became a well known figure as ranchman, range rider, Indian scout and cow boy, while his reputation as a sharp shooter was hardly excelled. His honesty was unquestioned and he became known as a man whose "word was as good as his bond," and holds that reputation to this day. Julesburg, was then a stage station but was abandoned when the railroad was built and the town moved to its present site. The Double 00 Ranch consisted of some three thousand acres; Indians and buffalo were thick in those days and Mr. Walrath tells most interestingly of hunting on the ground now covered by Julesburg. He learned the Indian's methods of hunting and preserving meat and hides and as the Sioux often came to his locality to hunt he accepted an invitation to go on one of their big hunts. On the trip they served him dog meat and worst of it all it was his own dog, but he could do nothing as there were hundreds of Indians. This banquet was served at Walrath's Ranch. In 1873, Mr. Walrath bought another ranch which gave him two fine properties, one sixteen miles east of Julesburg and the other near Weir, then known as Old Hay Bottom, which was used as a head quarters for both properties. Here were the corrals, stables and house for the men who kept the cattle on the six mile range. From this ranch the supplies were taken to the other, where a foreman had charge. The Indians burned this place just before Mr. Walrath reached it on one trip with supplies. He started for help and the Indians saw him and a running fire was kept up while he rode for his life. His foreman and helper had returned to their ranch, concealed themselves in a hole for the purpose and drove the Indians off so that Mr. Walrath was saved. Mr. Walrath recalls the sensational train hold up at Big Springs in 1876, when he took part in tracking the bandits who committed the crime, following the trail until he came up with soldiers



stationed in this locality for such purposes and turned the work over to them while he returned to the ranch. Collins was the leader of the gang and finally was captured with twenty of the sixty thousand dollars of the loot. Mr. Walrath has had varied experiences with thieves, one stole his horse and when he trailed and found him was forced to surrender and when Mr. Walrath brought him in the citizens hung him from a telegraph pole, for horse stealing was the worst crime on the calendar in the west.
   In 1880, Mr. Walrath was married at Canterbury, Connecticutt (sic), to Miss Ida T. Appley, the daughter of Lyman and Bethia (Pember) Appley, the mother being a cousin of President Fillmore. Four children have been born to this union: A. Judson, lives in Detroit, Michigan, being employed in the Ford Automobile Factory; Ida, a widow; Bessie, the wife of Robert Adams, of Morris, Minnesota, and Robert, at home. When Mr. Walrath brought his wife home to the ranch they left the train at Barton's Siding, the Walrath ranch station and while Mr. Walrath had been gone so many cattle had died of starvation the ground was covered with them. The winter had been cold, there was little feed and the cattle for which he had been offered fifty thousand dollars were nearly all dead. The Walrath home was fifty miles from Sidney, it was twenty-five miles to the nearest doctor and eighty-eight to North Platte, where it was necessary to go to get horses shod. Mrs. Walrath was the only woman for miles around but she had brought an organ with her from the eastern home and it helped while away many lonely hours and the cow boys came from great distances to hear her play, repaying her kindness by giving impromptu wild west shows. Later Mr. Walrath took up a homestead five miles east of Julesburg and now owns four hundred acres of hay land on the south side of the railroad. All other land he has sold with the exception of his city home. In 1911, Mr. Walrath retired from the active management of his ranches but as he had always been busy could not entirely settle down and has been carrying on a real estate business with success, though it is for diversion as he is a rich man from his accumulated property.
   Mr. Walrath is a Democrat; he served as county commissioner sixteen years when his land was in Cheyenne county; was treasurer of the school board twelve years and helped organize the first school in his locality. Mrs. Walrath is a member of the Methodist Church and Mr. Walrath has belonged to the Masonic order many years, having held all offices but that of worshipful master. He has been prominent in western Nebraska and eastern Colorado for many years and is today regarded as one of the prominent, leading and substantial citizens of Julesburg.

    CARL PIDGEON, one of Deuel county's most progressive and prosperous farmers and stockmen, is a native son, born here December 31, 1893, the son of Lincoln W., and Frances (Pindell) Pidgeon. The father was a school teacher who had studied for the ministry but was never ordained. He also took a law course and is now a well known lawyer in Sumner, Nebraska. The mother died in 1910. There were the following children in the Pidgeon family: Mable, wife of Maurice Johnson, of Deuel county; Guy, Paul, Carl, of this review, all of Deuel county, and Roy, killed by a horse in 1908. The Pidgeon family came to the Panhandle in 1890 and have lived in Nebraska ever since.
   Carl Pidgeon received his educational advantages in the public schools of this county and when his schooling was finished he engaged in farming, a vocation which he still follows. Meeting with success in his business, Mr. Pidgeon has from time to time increased his original holdings until today he is the owner of nine hundred acres of fine arable land. Eight hundred he farmrs (sic), using the other hundred as range for cattle. For many years he dealt extensively in cattle but for the past three years he has devoted more land to intensive farming and finds that it pays. With a brother, Mr. Pidgeon owns a threshing outfit which they run in Deuel county and the surrounding country. The Pidgeon farm has modern buildings and equipment, the latest machinery and a fine farm home.
   On May 22, 1913, Mr. Pidgeon married Miss Elsie Ward at Chappell, the daughter of Jennie L. (Johnson) and Cyrus J. Ward, the former lives in Chappell while Mr. Ward resides at Elm Creek. Three children have been born to this union: Francis, Vera and Doris. Mr. Pidgeon is a Republican, while his wife is a member of the Methodist Church. He is also a stockholder in the Farmers Elevator of Julesburg, and a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and with his wife belongs to the Rebecca Lodge.

   JAMES D. PINDELL, a member of one of the old pioneer families of the Panhandle and today one of its progressive and prosper-



ous farmers, was born in Bonaparte, Iowa, October 15, 1869, the son of Presley and Mary (Fox) Pindell, the former born in Brown county, Ohio, in 1834, died in 1916, the mother was born in Iowa in 1839 and died in 1915. The father was a wagon maker by trade, who came with his family to Nebraska in the fall of 1882, settled first in York county but came to Deuel county in the spring of 1885, and took up a homestead on section 22-14-43. Later he filed on a Kincaid (sic) claim where his son James now lives. Mr. Pindell was a Democrat but never held office. Both he and his wife were members of the Baptist church.
   The Pindell family drove across country to their new home with a span of mules and a wagon; the second year all the horses were lost when James and a brother went to Ash Hollow for wood and on the way home the brother had a sun stroke, fell from the wagon and the mules ran away. This was a serious loss as water had to be hauled more than three miles. Finally a well was dug; started on Christmas Day and finished in April. The family first lived in a tent but the wind was so strong it always was dangerous and a dugout was built, the roof of that was blown off and then a frame home took its place. Denver Junction was the nearest town, fifteen miles away, and there was only one house in that distance. Since, then, when the town consisted of a few houses, a store and station, the name has been changed to Julesburg. Six children made up the Pindell family of whom four are living: Frances, deceased; Charles, deceased; Albert, of Cheyenne, Wyoming; Nellie, of North Loupe, Nebraska; James, and George of Big Springs.
   Mr. Pindell was educated in the publics schools of Iowa and Nebraska; he accompanied his parents to Deuel county in 1885, and when old enough took up a homestead in section 28 where he lived until he sold and moved to Big Springs to engage in drilling wells, a vocation he followed ten years. Buying his father's farm, Mr. Pindell reurned (sic) to agricultural pursuits and has become one of the well known farmers here.
   February 21, 1906, Mr. Pindell married Miss Pearl Nelson, daughter of Nels and Rosetta (Van Aken) Nelson, residents of Big Springs and have two living children; Charles and Frances.
   Mr. Pindell is an Independent Democrat in politics, he and his wife attend the Presbyterian Church of which she is a member. For some years Mr. Pindell has been a member of the Farmers Union and is one of the progressive farmers and stockmen who is progressive in ideas and methods.

    ADAM H. ZIMMERMAN, pioneer settler of the Big Springs district who came here in the early days; passed through all the hardships and privations of frontier life and now is one of the substantial and prosperous farmers of the Panhandle; all this won by his own untiring effort and courage in the face of seemingly insurmountable difficulties. He was born in northwestern Ohio, June 10, 1859, the son of Adam and Catherine (Schott) Zimmerman, both natives of Germany, who came to the United States about 1855. Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman located in Defiance county, Ohio, where the father engaged in farming. He was a carpenter by trade but never worked at it except for himself. The mother and father both died in Ohio, the former in 1872 and the father in 1886. They were the parents of five children but Adam is the only one here. The father remarried after his first wife died and had two more children, one of whom still lives. Mr. Zimmerman helped organize several schools and churches in Ohio.
   Adam Zimmerman was educated in the public schools of Ohio, helped on the home place and at the age of twenty-one started in life for himself, as a farmer, a vocation he has followed successfully all his life. October 8, 1882, he married Miss Caroline Kurtz, the daughter of Jacob and Christina Kurtz, both natives of Germany. Ten children have been born to this union: Samuel, of Keith county; Frederick, deceased; James, deceased; Ella, the wife of George Brown of Colorado; Frank, of Deuel county; Adam, Ida, Annie, George and Ralph all at home.
   Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman came to Nebraska in 1885, took up a homestead on April 5th, of that year; filed at North Platte and proved up at Sidney. When they came here they had little of this world's goods but the determination to succeed and that has been enough. Mr. Zimmerman and a neighbor bought a team, wagon and harness in partnership to work their land but for a time the crops were poor. Wood had to be gathered in the canyons and distances were great. The family suffered severely from blizzards and drought but stuck to the land and won out. Mr. Zimmerman says that several times he was completely out of money and had to work to secure even a small amount and work was almost impossible to get. Settlers were few and far apart and many grew discouraged and left the country.
   At one time Mr. Zimmerman went to Colo-

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