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rado, to work; received twenty dollars for the month but when he had paid for his labor at home and railroad fare was only two and a half dollars ahead which tells us of the difficulties of that day. Today, Mr. Zimmerman has a well improved farm of several hundred acres, modern machinery; raises horses and cattle and for the past ten years has had an abundance of the world's goods. He is a Republican; a member of the Farmers Union and has served as school director of his district since he came here while Mrs. Zimmerman is treasurer. Today be has retired from active life and is enjoying the fruits of his labors.

    HARVEY K. BALD. -- During the years that Harvey K. Bald has been prominent in the financial field at Bayard, he has proven his trustworthiness as a banker, his usefulness as a citizen, and his worth as a man. A leading factor in two large financial institutions, his commercial influence is wide and his public responsibility great. Mr. Bald was born in Hamilton county, Nebraska, May 15, 1888.
   The parents of Mr. Bald, Louis and Matilda (Kemper) Bald, were of German parentage but both were born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where their fathers, Henry Bald and George Kemper, settled probably early in the forties. Both moved to Wisconsin and died there in advanced age. The maternal grandmother of Mr. Bald still survives and lives at Aurora, Nebraska, in her ninety-fifth year. The parents of Mr. Bald were married in Wisconsin and lived in Grant county prior to moving to Hamilton county, Nebraska, in 1876, making the journey with team and covered wagon. At first the father provided for his family by freighting between Lincoln and Aurora, at a time when the business was fraught with considerable danger, as the Indians were numerous and sometimes savage. Later he bought a farm and engaged in its cultivation, but subsequently retired to Aurora and yet lives there. He is a Democrat in politics but has never been unduly active, and belongs to the order of Modern Woodmen. Both he and wife are members of the German Evangelical church. Of their family of six children, Harvey K. was the fifth in order of birth, the others being as follows: Eda, who is the wife of D. H. Oswald, a farmer in Hamilton county; Frank, who is a farmer in Hamilton county; Frederick A., who is an attorney at Alliance, Nebraska; Arno, who is a physician and surgeon at Platte Center, Nebraska; and Harold, who lives on the old home place in Hamilton county, There are eighteen grandchildren in the family.
   Following his graduation from the Aurora high school, in 1906, Harvey K. Bald went to work in a drug store at Aurora where he remained through the summer. On January 1, 1907, he entered a bank at Aurora, as bookkeeper, and continued in the institution gaining banking experience until he came to Bayard. Here, in April, 1917, he organized the Farmers State Bank, of which he is cashier, and the Farmers Loan and Investment Company, of which he is secretary and treasurer. Both institutions are capitalized at $25,000, and both are in a very prosperous condition, careful and conservative methods being used in the management that assure safety under every condition of public finances.
   On July 3, 1916, Mr. Bald was united in marriage to Miss Frances Savage, who was born at Aurora, Nebraska, and they have two little daughters, Loyola Eda, born July 28, 1917, and Frances Patricia, born August 24, 1919. Mrs. Bald is a member of the Roman Catholic church, but Mr. Bald early united with the Presbyterian church. He is a Royal Arch Mason and has served as secretary, senior deacon and junior warden of his lodge. Mr. Bald has always been identified with the Democratic party but at no time has he felt inclined to put aside the claims of congenial business in order to find leisure to serve in a political office, for a man of his character would not feel justified in assuming such responsibility without devoting his time and attention to its duties.

   HENRY C. HATTERMAN, is a native son of Deuel county and one of the successful farmers of this district who has grown up in the west and made good though he took part in many frontier privations and hardships. Mr. Hatterman was born May 20, 1888, on the farm where he now resides in section 6-14-41. He is the son of Anton W. and Johanna H. (Claner) Hatterman, both natives of Germany who came to the United States in 1877. They settled first in Iowa and Mrs. Hatterman tells of crossing the Mississippi river in boats as there were no bridges near their home. A year later the family came to Nebraska, locating in York county, near Waco and remained there ten years. In March, 1888, Mr. Hatterman brought his family to the Panhandle and filed on the homestead where the son Henry now lives. Here the Hattermans passed through all the hardships and privations incident to life on the frontier; the father worked



in order to supply his family with the necessities of life, many times receiving only twenty-five cents a day. Conditions were bad, crop failures frequent, work was hard to get and the large family had to be fed. The first team Mr. Hatterman used was a yoke of oxen and they were also used to haul water for family use and stock. Much of the time the trip was twelve miles, but later Mr. Hatterman made a cistern in a draw where the rain collected. and this helped out on the water supply. Butter and eggs were exchanged for work. Hard work undermined the father's health and he died in 1909. The mother still lives with her son. There were six children in the family, of whom five are living: Edward and William of Deuel county; Sens, the wife of John Curley of Brule, Nebraska; Tona, the wife of James Fenwick, of Keith county; and Henry of this review. The father was a Democrat and in his early life belonged to the Lutheran church but he and his wife later joined the Methodist denomination. Henry Hatterman received all the educational advantages afforded in this locality when he was a boy, which was not much. As soon as he was old enough he began to work on the farm. While still a lad he was sent to the canyons to gather wood for the home and once after he had gather more than he could load, left the rest for another trip and on his return found that someone had stolen it. While the father was working on the railroad to earn money for supplies the boys carried on the farm work as best they could. As Mr. Hatterman grew older he assumed more and more of the work of the farm and when his father died took entire charge of the place and has gained a high reputation as a progressive and prosperous farmer.
   February 25, 1914, Mr. Hatterman married Miss Effie C. Stewart, the daughter of August and Martha (Coates) Stewart, pioneer settlers of Deuel county, living near Lodgepole, and three children have been born to the union; Floyd A., and Lloyd A., twins and Bertha I. Mr. Hatterman is a Democrat and for two years has served as treasurer of the school board of his district.

   AGNEW R. RYBURN, one of the well known hotel owners and operators of Big Springs, where he has been in business for more than a decade, is a pioneer settler and ranchman of Deuel county who has taken a prominent part in the opening up and settlement of this section of the Panhandle. He was born in Fayette county, Indiana, November 20, 1856, the son of John and Diantha (Gray) Ryburn, the former a native of Virginia, the latter of Indiana. They were the parents of five children but Agnew is the only one in western Nebraska. The father was a farmer who located in Indiana when a boy, near Brookfield; later bought land near Bushville where he died in 1872. The mother is still living at the advanced age of eighty-nine years. Mr. Ryburn was a prominent man in Indiana, engaged in general farming and stockraising; was a Republican and a member of the United Presbyterian church.
   Agnew Ryburn was educated in the public schools of Indiana; his father was injured when the boy was fifteen years old and he took charge of the home farm and has been in business for himself since that time. In January, 1876, Mr. Ryburn married Miss Ella M. Murray, at Oxford, Ohio, and they became the parents of five children: the oldest is deceased; Cora, the wife of Charles Morrow, lives in Indiana; Carthrine (sic), the wife of Earl Hinchman also lives in Indiana; Murray, of Wyoming, and Hinsey of Tacoma, Washington. Mr. Ryburn came to Deuel county in the fall of 1886, on a visit and remained. The family followed him in 1889. At first he worked for the State Line Horse Ranch, as foreman, but his wife and oldest daughter died the first year and after a few years Mr. Ryburn became associated with Frank Doran. In January, 1900, he bought the hotel in Big Springs which he has since operated. During this time he has made many warm friends and gained a high standing in the community Mr. Ryburn was clerk of the election board when Deuel county voted for the county seat; the rivalry between Big Springs and Chapell. The first election was fraudulent and everyone knew it as thousands of votes were cast when there were not more than five hundred voters. The case was contested and Mr. Ryburn called to the stand; an effort was made to place the blame on him but he cleverly evaded many questions. Later another election was held and Chappell was chosen as the seat of justice. Mr. Ryburn says he will never forget the many interesting incidents created by this affair and now laughs about them. He lived in the Panhandle at the time when the last of the Texas range cattle were driven through and since that time cattle have been raised on the ranches. Big Springs at that time was known as Lone Tree, later the name was changed. The great cattle trail crossed the river at this point splitting up on top of the table land north of town so that he has seen all the marvelous changes from the old trail days, and the old



pioneers can hardly realize it is the same country. Mr. Ryburn has been a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows since he was twenty-one years of age and filled all chairs.

    GOTLEIB C. MANSER, pioneer settler and well known business man of Big Springs, is one of the essenially (sic) self made men of the Panhandle who came here with little but the determination to succeed and two willing hands with which he worked, and he has made good. Today, he is one of the most substantial men of the community and has the distinction of being the first blacksmith of Big Springs. Mr. Manser was born in Germany, December 24, 1860, the son of Jacob and Rosina (Meister) Manser, both natives of that land. The father was a blacksmith in his native land who came with his family to the United States in 1886; settled in Amherst, Colorado, where he engaged in business at his trade. The mother died there in 1911 and the father in 1913, leaving a family of nine children, but Gotlieb is the only one living in the Panhandle. He was educated in the public schools of Germany and also learned the blacksmith's trade from his father. Mr. Manser came to this country ahead of the rest of the family, sailing from Europe in 1882. Soon after reaching our shores he located in York county, Nebraska, where he engaged in business as a blacksmith two years before coming to Deuel county to file on a homestead northeast of Big Springs in Keith county, but lived their (sic) only two years as he came to Big Springs in 1886 and opened a blacksmith shop, the first in the town. For eight years Mr. Manser carried on this business then moved back to his farm to engage in agricultural industries for nearly a quarter of a century. He was sober, industrious, not afraid of hard work and by these qualities became a successful rancher; When he came Mr. Manser says that all he had was his two bare hands and today he has two sections well improved. He has made his way independently, is essentially self-made by steady work, his native ability and perseverence (sic) and is still a young man in years. At first he did not do much farming as the country was not yet adapted to that but raised cattle and fed some, having at one time over a hundred head. Since he retired from the land his sons have charge of the farm. Mr. Manser recounts that at first the settlers had no wood and burned buffalo chips; wagons were the only means of transportation and for three years he hauled water six miles for family and stock, paying five cents a barrel for it. Since returning to town Mr. Manser has again turned to his trade as he feels he is too young to give up all active life. He owns a fine home in Big Springs.
   February 2, 1888, Mr. Manser was united in marriage with Miss Anna Miller, the daughter of John and Anna miller, pioneer settlers of Deuel county, and seven children have been born to the union: Otto, at the home place; Charles, married, lives on a home farm; Tillie, Emma, Lillian, Bennie and Mattie all at home.
   Mr. Manser is a Republican and a member of the Methodist church. He is a progressive man in his business and ever ready to help any movement for the development of his community and county.

   RILEY FORD, early settler, well known ranchman and today a member of the retired colony of Big Springs, is one of the few men today who knew and associated with the cowboys who had charge of the great herds of cattle that ranged over the anhandle (sic) in the early eighties. He was born in Rockford, Illinois, June 15, 1862, the son of Cebra and Harriet (Gates) Ford, the former a native of Ireland while the mother was born in France. Mr. Ford came to the United States to engage in farming; settled first in Ohio, then Illinois and from that-state moved to Iowa in 1865. Mrs. Ford died there in 1872, and her husband in 1892. He was a general farmer, a Republican in politics but never held office. There were four children in the family but Riley, of this review, is the only one living. He received his education in the public schools of Iowa and when old enough determined to have a farm of his own. Learning that there was plenty of cheap land in the Panhandle he came here in 1885, locating in Deuel county in June of that year. The trip was made across the country in true pioneer style in a wagon drawn by horses, living in the covered wagon on the way. Locating on a homestead five miles south of Big Springs, Mr. Ford at once erected the usual frontier home--a sod house--a sod stable and was ready for his family when they-come five months later. At that time there was only one habitation between Big Springs and Julesburg, the land being unbroken prairie. The family was discouraged many times due to the poor crops so many years from drought and at first they had to haul water over two miles for family use and the stock. However, they could not sell, stuck it out and in the end won out with a comfortable fortune. Settlers made the best of the situation in those days; held parties in



the sod houses and Mr. Ford says had a better time than people do today. He has seen the many changes in Deuel county which today is rich farm land well settled, and has taken his part in this development. During the early days Mr. Ford made friends of the cow-boys who were with the great cattle outfits and they often gave the family meat when they butchered. Accepting an invitation from one outfit to go to Julesburg with them he had an adventurous time as they shot up the town, but the foreman paid all damages and all had a good time. They put on an imprompteau "Wild West Show" with a colored man doing the riding in the dark on a rainy night and all he spectators saw was the glow of the point of the cigar in his mouth as the horse bucked. In the spring of 1919, Mr. Ford sold his farm land and retired from active life and now makes his home in Big Springs. He made a comfortable fortune from land that was thought worthless and is enjoying the sunset years of life.
   May 28, 1882, Mr. Ford married Miss E. Miller, the daughter of John and Anna Miller, at Decorah, Iowa, and they became the parents of four children: Hattie, the wife of Harry Jones, of Lawrence, Wyoming; Charles, on the home place; Claude of South Port, North Carolina, just mustered out of government service and John, of Big Springs. Mr. Ford is a Republican and attends the Methodist church.

    GEORGE E. RICHARDSON, one of the early settlers of Big Springs district who came here when this country was unbroken prairie and has experienced all the vicissitudes incident to life on the frontier and made good as a rancher, is an Englishman, born in Lincolnshire, January 13, 1861, the son of George and Annie (Jackson) Richardson, both natives of England where the father was a farmer and veterinary. The family came to the United States in 1873; settled near York, Nebraska, where the elder Richardson took a homestead and passed the remainder of his days on the farm. He died in 1899. The mother passed away in 1875, leaving a family of three children: Arthur, of York, Nebraska; George of this review, and Herbert of Holt, Nebraska.
   George Richardson was educated in the common schools of England until he was twelve years of age then accompanied his parents to their home in the United States. He remained at home until his twenty-second year then filed on a homestead ten miles southeast of Big Springs in Keith county. This county was later divided and the subdivision called Perkins county, where Mr. Richardson lived until 1895, when he moved near the town of Big Springs. In 1916, he retired from active participation in business and since then has made his home in Big Springs. He sold out his original homestead, but still owns an irrigated farm near the city and a home in the town. When Mr. Richardson came to this section in 1884, he drove across the country with a yoke of oxen, following along the right of way of the Union Pacific Railroad. As teams became stuck in the mud some other traveller would help pull them out, thus Mr. Richardson helped others and they in turn assisted in pulling his wagon from some mud holes. His equipment consisted of a cow, plow and a few supplies. For some time he made money breaking land for other men and secured capital for a start. The second year he had a good crop of corn but range cattle broke into his fields and ate it all. With a neighbor he cut hay with a scythe-there were no mowers then-- and had to watch the hay stacks to see that range cattle did not break the fences and eat it too. There were some wild horses, a few buffaloes on Frenchman's creek and numbers of coyotes in this section then and Mr. Richardson killed many of the latter. He is a Democrat in politics, but took no active part in political life for many years; has been one of the best known ranchmen in the Big Springs section where he is considered one of the substantial and prosperous farmers who is progressive in his ideas and methods.

    JOHN C. STEWARD, one of the early settlers of Deuel county and today one of the most successful and prosperous farmers of this section, was born in Henry county, Illinois, September 4, 1859, the son of Martin and Mary (Woodruff) Steward, natives of New York. The father was a farmer who came to Illinois and at the outbreak of the Civil War voluntered (sic) serving in the One Hundred and Twelfth Illinois Infantry from 1861 to 1864. In 1884, Mr. Steward came to Nebraska, locating in Dawson county, then homesteaded five miles northwest of Big Springs, where the family lived until his death. Mrs. Stewart later sold that place and took a homestead as a widow; proved up but later married a minister from Iowa, I. M. Flyng, and now lives in Chappell. There were eight children in the family, of whom five are living, but John, of this sketch, is the only one in Deuel county. Mrs. Steward was a member of the Methodist church, while her husband was a Republican in politics.
   John Steward was educated in the public schools of Illinois and was married in Bureau

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