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J. E. Johnston, Jas. Longstreet, Joseph Hooker,
Wade Hampton, John A. Logan, Salmon P. Chase,
John C. Fremont, Simon B. Buckner, R. A. Alger.

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EORGE WASHINGTON, the first president of the United States, called the "Father of his Country," was one of the most celebrated characters in history. He was born February 22, 1732, in Washington Parish, Westmoreland county, Virginia. His father, Augustine Washington, first married Jane Butler, who bore him four children, and March 6, 1730, he married Mary Ball. Of six children by his second marriage, George was the eldest.

     Little is known of the early years of Washington, beyond the fact that the house in which he was born was burned during his early childhood, and that his father thereupon moved to another farm, inherited from his paternal ancestors, situated in Stafford county, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, and died there in 1743. From earliest childhood George developed a noble character. His education was somewhat defective, being confined to the elementary branches taught him by his mother and at a neighboring school. On leaving school he resided some time at Mount Vernon with his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as his guardian. George's inclinations were for a seafaring career, and a midshipman's warrant was procured for him; but through the opposition of his mother the project was abandoned, and at the age of sixteen he was appointed surveyor to the immense estates of the eccentric Lord Fairfax. Three years were passed by Washington in a rough frontier life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very essential to him. In 1751, when the Virginia militia were put under training with a view to active service against France, Washington, though only nineteen years of age, was appointed adjutant, with the rank of major. In 1752 Lawrence Washington died, leaving his large property to an infant daughter. In his will George was named one of the executors and as an eventual heir to Mount Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece, soon succeeded to that estate. In 1753 George was commissioned adjutant-general of the Virginia militia, and performed important work at the outbreak of the French and Indian war, was rapidly promoted, and at the close of that war we find him commander-in-chief of

Copyright 1897, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co.



all the forces raised in Virginia. A cessation of Indian hostilities on the frontier having followed the expulsion of the French from the Ohio, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces, and then proceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in the Virginia Assembly, of which he had been elected a member.

      January 17, 1759, Washington married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Curtis, a young and beautiful widow of great wealth, and devoted himself for the ensuing fifteen years to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, interrupted only by the annual attendance in winter upon the colonial legislature at Williamsburg, until summoned by his country to enter upon that other arena in which his fame was to become world-wide. The war for independence called Washington into service again, and he was made commander-in-chief of the colonial forces, and was the most gallant and conspicuous figure in that bloody struggle, serving until England acknowledged the independence of each of the thirteen States, and negotiated with them jointly, as separate sovereignties. December 4, 1783, the great commander took leave of his officers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where the congress of the States was in session, and to that body, when peace and order prevailed everywhere, resigned his commission and retired to Mount Vernon.

      It was in 1789 that Washington was called to the chief magistracy of the nation. The inauguration took place April 30, in the presence of an immense multitude which had assembled to witness the new and imposing ceremony. In the manifold details of his civil administration Washington proved himself fully equal to the requirements of his position. In 1792, at the second presidential election, Washington was desirous to retire; but he yielded to the general wish of the country, and was again chosen president. At the third election, in 1796, he was again most urgently entreated to consent to remain in the executive chair. This he positively refused, and after March 4, 1797, he again retired to Mount Vernon for peace, quiet, and repose.

     Of the call again made on this illustrious chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon and take command of all the United States forces, with rank of lieutenant-general, when war was threatened with France in 1798, nothing need here be stated, except to note the fact as an unmistakable testimonial of the high regard in which he was still held by his countrymen of all shades of political opinion. He patriotically accepted this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop to all action under it. He again retired to Mount Vernon, where he died December 14, 1799, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. His remains were deposited in a family vault on the banks of the Potomac, at Mount Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 

Letter/label or barENJAMIN FRANKLIN, an eminent American statesman and scientist, was born of poor parentage, January 17, 1706, in Boston, Massachusetts. He was apprenticed to his brother James to learn the printer's trade to prevent his running away and going to sea, and also because of the numerous family his parents had to support (there being seventeen children, Benjamin being the fifteenth). He was a great reader, and soon developed a taste for writing, and prepared a number of articles and had them published in the paper without his brother's knowledge, and when the authorship became known it resulted in difficulty for the



young apprentice, although his articles had been received with favor by the public. James was afterwards thrown into prison for political reasons, and young Benjamin conducted the paper alone during the time. In 1823 (sic), however, he determined to endure his bonds no longer, and ran away, going to Philadelphia, where he arrived with only three pence as his store of wealth. With these he purchased three rolls, and ate them as he walked along the streets. He soon found employment as a journeyman printer. Two years later he was sent to England by the governor of Pennsylvania, and was promised the public printing, but did not get it. On his return to Philadelphia he established the "Pennsylvania Gazette," and soon found himself a person of great popularity in the province, his ability as a writer, philosopher, and politician having reached the neighboring colonies. He rapidly grew in prominence, founded the Philadelphia Library in 1842 (sic), and two years later the American Philosophical Society and the University of Pennsylvania. He was made Fellow of the Royal Society in London in 1775. His world-famous investigations in electricity and lightning began in 1746. He became postmaster-general of the colonies in 1753, having devised an inter-colonial postal system. He advocated the rights of the colonies at all times, and procured the repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. He was elected to the Continental congress of 1775, and in 1776 was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, being one of the committee appointed to draft that paper. He represented the new nation in the courts of Europe, especially at Paris, where his simple dignity and homely wisdom won him the admiration of the court and the favor of the people. He was governor of Pennsylvania four years; was also a member of the convention in 1787 that drafted the constitution of the United States.

     His writings upon political topics, antislavery, finance, and economics, stamp him as one of the greatest statesmen of his time, while his "Autobiography" and "Poor Richard's Almanac" give him precedence in the literary field. In early life he was an avowed skeptic in religious matters, but later in life his utterances on this subject were less extreme, though he never expressed approval of any sect or creed. He died in Philadelphia April 17, 1790. 

Letter/label or barANIEL WEBSTER--Of world wide reputation for statesmanship, diplomacy, and oratory, there is perhaps no more prominent figure in the history of our country in the interval between 1815 and 1861, than Daniel Webster. He was born at Salisbury (now Franklin), New Hampshire, January 18, 1782, and was the second son of Ebenezer and Abigail (Eastman) Webster. He enjoyed but limited educational advantages in childhood, but spent a few months in 1797, at Phillip Exeter Academy. He completed his preparation for college in the family of Rev. Samuel Wood, at Boscawen, and entered Dartmouth College in the fall of 1797. He supported himself most of the time during these years by teaching school and graduated in 1801, having the credit of being the foremost scholar of his class. He entered the law office of Hon. Thomas W. Thompson, at Salisbury. In 1802 he continued his legal studies at Fryeburg, Maine, where he was principal of the academy and copyist in the office of the register of deeds. In the office of Christopher Gore, at Boston, he completed his studies in 1804-5, and was admitted to the bar in the latter year, and at Boscawen and at Portsmouth soon rose to eminence in his profes-



sion. He became known as a federalist but did not court political honors; but, attracting attention by his eloquence in opposing the war with England, he was elected to congress in 1812. During the special session of May, 1813, he was appointed on the committee on foreign affairs and made his maiden speech June 10, 1813. Throughout this session (as afterwards) he showed his mastery of the great economic questions of the day. He was re-elected in 1814. In 1816 he removed to Boston and for seven years devoted himself to his profession, earning by his arguments in the celebrated "Dartmouth College Case" rank among the most distinguished jurists of the country. In 1820 Mr. Webster was chosen a member of the state convention of Massachusetts, to revise the constitution. The same year he delivered the famous discourse on the "Pilgrim fathers," which laid the foundation for his fame as an orator. Declining a nomination for United States senator, in 1822 he was elected to the lower house of congress and was re-elected in 1824 and 1826, but in 1827 was transferred to the senate. He retained his seat in the latter chamber until 1841. During this time his voice was ever lifted in defence of the national life and honor and although politically opposed to him he gave his support to the administration of President Jackson in the latter's contest with nullification. Through all these years he was ever found upon the side of right and justice and his speeches upon all the great questions of the day have become household words in almost every family. In 1841 Mr. Webster was appointed secretary of state by President Harrison and was continued in the same office by President Tyler. While an incumbent of this office he showed consummate ability as a diplomat in the negotiation of the "Ashburton treaty" of August 9, 1849, which settled many points of dispute between the United States and England. In May, 1843, he resigned his post and resumed his profession, and in December, 1845, took his place again in the senate. He contributed in an unofficial way to the solution of the Oregon question with Great Britain in 1847. He was disappointed in 1848 in not receiving the nomination for the presidency. He became secretary of state under President Fillmore in 1850 and in dealing with all the complicated questions of the day showed a wonderful mastery of the arts of diplomacy. Being hurt in an accident he retired to his home at MarshfIeld, where he died October 24, 1852. 

Letter/label or barORACE GREELEY. --As journalist, author, statesman and political leader, there is none more widely known than the man whose name heads this article. He was born in Amherst, New Hampshire, February 3, 1811, and was reared upon a farm. At an early age he evinced a remarkable intelligence and love of learning, and at the age of ten had read every book he could borrow for miles around. About 1821 the family removed to Westhaven, Vermont, and for some years young Greeley assisted in carrying on the farm. In 1826 he entered the office of a weekly newspaper at East Poultney, Vermont, where he remained about four years. On the discontinuance of this paper he followed his father's family to Erie county, Pennsylvania, whither they had moved, and for a time worked at the printer's trade in that neighborhood. In 1831 Horace went to New York City, and for a time found employment as journeyman printer. January, 1833, in partnership with Francis Story, he published the Morning Post, the first penny

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