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paper ever printed. This proved a failure and was discontinued after three weeks. The business of job printing was carried on, however, until the death of Mr. Story in July following. In company with Jonas Winchester, March 22, 1834, Mr. Greeley commenced the publication of the New Yorker, a weekly paper of a high character. For financial reasons, at the same time, Greeley wrote leaders for other papers, and, in 1838, took editorial charge of the Jeffersonian, a Whig paper published at Albany. In 1840, on the discontinuance of that sheet, he devoted his energies to the Log Cabin, a campaign paper in the interests of the Whig party. In the fall of 1841 the latter paper was consolidated with the New Yorker, under the name of the Tribune, the first number of which was issued April 10, 1841. At the head of this paper Mr. Greeley remained until the day of his death.

     In 1848 Horace Greeley was elected to the national house of representatives to fill a vacancy, and was a member of that body until March 4, 1849. In 1851 he went to Europe and served as a juror at the World's Fair at the Crystal Palace, London. In 1855, he made a second visit to the old world. In 1859 he crossed the plains and received a public reception at San Francisco and Sacramento. He was a member of the Republican national convention, at Chicago in 1860, and assisted in the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for President. The same year he was a presidential elector for the state of New York, and a delegate to the Loyalist convention at Philadelphia.

     At the close of the war, in 1865, Mr. Greeley became a strong advocate of universal amnesty and complete pacification, and in pursuance of this consented to become one of the bondsmen for Jefferson Davis, who was imprisoned for treason. In 1867 he was a delegate to the New York state convention for the revision of the constitution. In 1870 he was defeated for congress in the Sixth New York district. At the Liberal convention, which met in Cincinnati, in May, 1872, on the fifth ballot Horace Greeley was nominated for president and July following was nominated for the same office by the Democratic convention at Baltimore. He was defeated by a large majority. The large amount of work done by him during the campaign, together with the loss of his wife about the same time, undermined his strong constitution, and he was seized with inflammation of the brain, and died November 29, 1872.

     In addition to his journalistic work, Mr. Greeley was the author of several meritorious works, among which were: "Hints toward reform," ''Glances at Europe," "History of the struggle for slavery extension," "Overland journey to San Francisco, " The American conflict," and " Recollections of a busy life." 

Letter/label or barENRY CLAY.--In writing of this eminent American, Horace Greeley once said: "He was a matchless party chief, an admirable orator, a skillful legislator, wielding unequaled influence, not only over his friends, but even over those of his political antagonists who were subjected to the magic of his conversation and manners." A lawyer, legislator, orator, and statesman, few men in history have wielded greater influence, or occupied so prominent a place in the hearts of the generation in which they lived.

     Henry Clay was born near Richmond, in Hanover county, Virginia, April 12, 1777, the son of a poor Baptist preacher who died when Henry was but five years



old. The mother married again about ten years later and removed to Kentucky leaving Henry a cleric in a store at Richmond. Soon afterward Henry Clay secured a position as copyist in the office of the clerk of the high court of chancery, and four years later entered the law office of Robert Brooke, then attorney general and later governor of his native state. In 1797 Henry Clay was licensed as a lawyer and followed his mother to Kentucky, opening an office at Lexington and soon built up a profitable practice. Soon afterward Kentucky, in separating from Virginia, called a state convention for the purpose of framing a constitution, and Clay at that time took a prominent part, publicly urging the adoption of a clause providing for the abolition of slavery, but in this he was overruled, as he was fifty years later, when in the height of his fame he again advised the same course when the state constitution was revised in 1850. Young Clay took a very active and conspicuous part in the presidential campaign in 1800, favoring the election of Jefferson; and in 1803 was chosen to represent Fayette county in the state legislature. In 1806 General John Adair, then United States senator from Kentucky, resigned and Henry Clay was elected to fill the vacancy by the legislature and served through one session in which he at once assumed a prominent place. In 1807 he was again a representative in the legislature and was elected speaker of the house. At this time originated his trouble with Humphrey Marshall. Clay proposed that each member clothe himself and family wholly in American fabrics, which Marshall characterized as the "language of a demarogue." This led to a duel in which both parties were slightly injured. In 1809 Henry Clay was again elected to fill a vacancy in the United States senate, and two years later elected representative in the lower house of congress, being chosen speaker of the house. About this time war was declared against Great Britain, and Clay took a prominent public place during this struggle and was later one of the commissioners sent to Europe by President Madison to negotiate peace, returning in September. 1815, having been re-elected speaker of the house during his absence, and was re-elected unanimously. He was afterward reelected to congress and then became secretary of state under John Quincy Adams. In 1831 he was again elected senator from Kentucky and remained in the senate most of the time until his death.

     Henry Clay was three times a candidate for the presidency, and once very nearly elected. He was the unanimous choice of the Whig party in 1844 for the presidency, and a great effort was made to elect him but without success, his opponent, James K. Polk, carrying both Pennsylvania and New York by a very slender margin, while either of them alone would have elected Clay. Henry Clay died at Washington June 29, 1852. 

Letter/label or barAMES GILLESPIE BLAINE was one of the most distinguished of American statesmen and legislators. He was born January 31, 1830, in Washington county, Pennsylvania, and received a thorough education, graduating at Washington College in 1847. In early life he removed to Maine and engaged in newspaper work, becoming editor of the Portland "Advertiser." While yet a young man he gained distinction as a debater and became a conspicuous figure in political and public affairs. In 1862 he was elected to congress on the Republican ticket in Maine and was reelected five times. In March, 1869, he was chosen speaker of the



house of representatives and was re-elected in 1871 and again in 1873. In 1876 he was a representative in the lower house of congress and during that year was appointed United States senator by the Governor to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator Morrill, who had been appointed secretary of the treasury. Mr. Blaine served in the senate until March 5, 1881, when President Garfield appointed him secretary of state, which position he resigned in December, 1881. Mr. Blaine was nominated for the presidency by the Republicans, at Chicago in June, 1884, but was defeated by Grover Cleveland after an exciting and spirited campaign. During the later years of his life Mr. Blaine devoted most of his time to the completion of his work "Twenty Years in Congress," which had a remarkably large sale throughout the United States. Blaine was a man of great mental ability and force of character and during the latter part of his life was one of the most noted men of his time. He was the originator of what is termed the ''reciprocity idea" in tariff matters, and outlined the plan of carrying it into practical effect. In 1876 Robert G. Ingersoll in making a nominating speech placing Blaine's name as a candidate for president before the national Republican convention at Cincinnati, referred to Blaine as the "Plumed Knight" and this title clung to him during the remainder of his life. His death occurred at Washington, January 27, 1893. 

Letter/label or barOHN CALDWELL CALHOUN, a distinguished American statesman, was a native of South Carolina, born in Abbeville district, March i8, 1782. He was given the advantages of a thorough education, graduating at Yale College in 1804, and adopted the calling of a lawyer. A Democrat politically, at that time, he took a foremost part in the councils of his party and was elected to congress in 18 11, supporting the tariff of 1816 and the establishing of the United States Bank. In 1817 he became secretary of war in President Monroe's cabinet, and in 1824 was elected vice-president of the United States, on the ticket with John Quincy Adams, and reelected in 1828, on the ticket with General Jackson. Shortly after this Mr. Calhoun became one of the strongest advocates of free trade and the principle of sovereignty of the states and was one of the originators of the doctrine that ' any state could nullify unconstitutional laws of congress." Meanwhile Calhoun had become an aspirant for the presidency, and the fact that General Jackson advanced the interests of his opponent, Van Buren, led to a quarrel, and Calhoun resigned the vice-presidency in 1832 and was elected United States senator from South Carolina. It was during the same year that a convention was held in South Carolina at which the "NullifIcation ordinance" was adopted, the object of which was to test the constitutionality of the protective tariff measures, and to prevent if possible the collection of import duties in that state which had been levied more for the purpose of "protection" than revenue. This ordinance was to go into effect in February, 1833, and created a great deal of uneasiness throughout the country as it was feared there would be a clash between the state and federal authorities. It was in this serious condition of public affairs that Henry Clay came forward with the the famous ''tariff compromise" of 1833, to which measure Calhoun and most of his followers gave their support and the crisis was averted. In 1843 Mr. Calhoun was appointed secretary of state in President Tyler's cabinet, and it was under



his administration that the treaty concerning the annexation of Texas was negotiated. In 1845 he was re-elected to the United States senate and continued in the senate until his death, which occurred in March, 1850. He occupied a high rank as a scholar, student and orator, and it is conceded that he was one of the greatest debaters America has produced. The famous debate between Calhoun and Webster, in 1833, is regarded as the most noted for ability and eloquence in the history of the country. 

Letter/label or barENJAMIN FRANKLIN BUTLER, one of America's most brilliant and profound lawyers and noted public men, was a native of New England, born at Deerfield, New Hampshire, November 5, 1818. His father, Captain John Butler, was a prominent man in his day, commanded a company during the war of 1812, and served under Jackson at New Orleans. Benjamin F. Butler was given an excellent education, graduated at Waterville College, Maine, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1840, at Lowell, Massachusetts, where he commenced the practice of his profession and gained a wide reputation for his ability at the bar, acquiring an extensive practice and a fortune. Early in life he began taking an active interest in military affairs and served in the state militia through all grades from private to brigadier-general. In 1853 he was elected to the state legislature on the Democratic ticket in Lowell, and took a prominent part in the passage of legislation in the interests of labor. During the same year he was a member of the constitutional convention, and in 1859 represented his district in the Massachusetts senate. When the Civil war broke out General Butler took the field and remained at the front most of the time during that bloody struggle. Part of the time he had charge of Fortress Monroe, and in February, 1862, took command of troops forming part of the expedition against New Orleans, and later had charge of the department of the Gulf. He was a conspicuous figure during the continuance of the war. After the close of hostilities General Butler resumed his law practice in Massachusetts and in 1866 was elected to congress from the Essex district. In 1882 he was elected governor of Massachusetts, and in 1884 was the nominee of the " Greenback" party for president of the United States. He continued his legal practice, and maintained his place as one of the most prominent men in New England until the time of his death, which occurred January 10, 1893. 

Letter/label or barEFFERSON DAVIS, an officer, statesman and legislator of prominence in America, gained the greater part of his fame from the fact that he was president of the southern confederacy. Mr. Davis was born in Christian county. Kentucky, June 3, 1808, and his early education and surroundings were such that his sympathies and inclinations were wholly with the southern people. He received a thorough education, graduated at West Point in 1828, and for a number of years served in the army at western posts and in frontier service, first as lieutenant and later as adjutant. In 1835 he resigned and became a cotton planter in Warren county, Mississippi, where he took an active interest in public affairs and became a conspicuous figure in politics. In 1844 he was a presidential elector from Mississippi and during the two following years served as congressman from his district. He then became colonel of a Mississippi regiment in the war with Mexico and participated in some of the most severe bat-



tles, being seriously wounded at Buena Vista. Upon his return to private life he again took a prominent part in political affairs and represented his state in the United States senate from 1847 to 1851. He then entered President Pierce's cabinet as secretary of war, after which he again entered the United States senate, remaining until the outbreak of the Civil war. He then became president of the southern confederacy and served as such until captured in May, 1865, at Irwinville, Georgia. He was held as prisoner of war at Fortress Monroe, until 1867, when he was released on bail and finally set free in 1868. His death occurred December 6, 1889.

     Jefferson Davis was a man of excellent abilities and was recognized as one of the best organizers of his day. He was a forceful and fluent speaker and a ready writer. He wrote and published the " Rise and Fall of the Southern Confederacy," a work which is considered as authority by the southern people. 

Letter/label or barOHN ADAMS, the second president of the United States, and one of the most conspicuous figures in the early struggles of his country for independence, was born in the present town of Quincy, then a portion of Braintree, Massachusetts, October 30, 1735. He received a thorough education, graduating at Harvard College in 1755, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1758. He was well adapted for this profession and after opening an office in his native town rapidly grew in prominence and public favor and soon was regarded as one of the leading lawyers of the country. His attention was called to political affairs by the passage of the Stamp Act, in 1765, and he drew up a set of resolutions on the subject which were very popular. In 1768 he removed to Boston and became one of the most courageous and prominent advocates of the popular cause and was chosen a member of the Colonial legislature from Boston. He was one of the delegates that represented Massachusetts in the first Continental congress, which met in September, 1774. In a letter written at this crisis he uttered the famous words: "The die is now cast; I have passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish with my country, is my unalterable determination." He was a prominent figure in congress and advocated the movement for independence when a majority of the members were inclined to temporize and to petition the King. In May, 1776, he presented a resolution in congress that the colonies should assume the duty of self-government, which was passed. In June, of the same year, a resolution that the United States "are, and of right ought to be, free and independent," was moved by Richard H. Lee, seconded by Mr. Adams and adopted by a small majority. Mr. Adams was a member of the committee of five appointed June 11 to prepare a declaration of independence, in support of which he made an eloquent speech. He was chairman of the Board of War in 1776 and in 1778 was sent as commissioner to France, but returned the following year. In 1780 he went to Europe, having been appointed as minister to negotiate a treaty of peace and commerce with Great Britain. Conjointly with Franklin and Jay he negotiated a treaty in 1782. He was employed as a minister to the Court of St. James from 1785 to 1788, and during that period wrote his famous "Defence of the American Constitutions." In 1789 he became vice-president of the United States and was re-elected in 1792.

     In 796 Mr. Adams was chosen presi-



dent of the United States, his competitor being Thomas Jefferson, who became vice-president. In 1800 he was the Federal candidate for president, but he was not cordially supported by Gen. Hamilton, the favorite leader of his party, and was defeated by Thomas Jefferson.

      Mr. Adams then retired from public life to his large estate at Quincy, Mass., where he died July 4, 1826, on the same day that witnessed the death of Thomas Jefferson. Though his physical frame began to give way many years before his death, his mental powers retained their strength and vigor to the last. In his ninetieth year he was gladdened by .the elevation of his son, John Quincy Adams, to the presidential office. 

Letter/label or barENRY WARD BEECHER, one of the most celebrated American preachers and authors, was born at Litchfleld, Connecticut, June 24, 1813. His father was Dr. Lyman Beecher, also an eminent divine. At an early age Henry Ward Beecher had a strong predilection for a sea-faring life, and it was practically decided that he would follow this inclination, but about this time, in consequence of deep religious impressions which he experienced during a revival, he renounced his former intention and decided to enter the ministry. After having graduated at Amherst College, in 1834, he studied theology at Lane Seminary under the tuition of his father, who was then president of that institution. In 1847 he became pastor of the Plymouth Congregational church in Brooklyn, where his oratorical ability and original eloquence attracted one of the largest congregations in the country. He continued to served this church until the time of his death, March 8, 1887. Mr. Beecher also found time for a great amount of literary work. For a number of years he was editor of the "Independent" and also the "Christian Union." He also produced many works which are widely known. Among his principal productions are. "Lectures to Young Men,'' 'Star Papers,'' "Life of Christ," Life Thoughts,'' ''Royal Truths" (a novel), '' Norwood," Evolution and Revolution," and '' Sermons on Evolution and Religion." Mr. Beecher was also long a prominent advocate of antislavery principles and temperance reform, and, at a later period, of the rights of women. 

Letter/label or barOHN A. LOGAN, the illustrious statesman and general, was born in Jackson county, Illinois, February 9. 1824. In his boyhood days he received but a limited education in the schools of his native county. On the breaking out of the war with Mexico he enlisted in the First Illinois Volunteers and became its quartermaster. At the close of hostilities he returned home and was elected clerk of the courts of Jackson county in 1849. Determining to supplement his education Logan entered the Louisville University, from which he graduated in 1852 and taking up the study of law was admitted to the bar. He attained popularity and success in his chosen profession and was elected to the legislature in 1852, 1853, 1856 and 1857. He was prosecuting attorney from 1853 to 1857. He was elected to congress in 1858 to fill a vacancy and again in 1860. At the outbreak of the Rebellion, Logan resigned his office and entered the army, and in September, 1861, was appointed colonel of the Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, which he led in the battles of Belmont and Fort Donelson. In the latter engagement he was wounded. In March, 1862, he was promoted to be brigadier-general and in the following month participated in the battles of Pittsburg Landing. In November, 1862,



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Ralph W. Emerson, E. C. Stanton, Daniel Webster
Jas. R. Lowell, Henry W. Beecher, Wendell Phillips
Harriet E. B. Stowe, Washington Irving, John G. Whittier.



for gallant conduct he was made major-general. Throughout the Vicksburg campaign he was in command of a division of the Seventeenth Corps and was distinguished at Port Gibson, Champion Hills and in the siege and capture of Vicksburg. In October, 1863, he, was placed in command of the Fifteenth Corps, which he led with great credit. During the terrible conflict before Atlanta, July 22, 1864, on the death of General McPherson, Logan, assuming command of the Army of the Tennessee, led it on to victory, saving the day by his energy and ability. He was shortly after succeeded by General O. O. Howard and returned to the command of his corps. He remained in command until the presidential election, when, feeling that his influence was needed at home he returned thither and there remained until the arrival of Sherman at Savannah, when General Logan rejoined his command. In May, 1865, he succeeded General Howard at the head of the Army of the Tennessee. He resigned from the army in August, the same year, and in November was appointed minister to Mexico, but declined the honor. He served in the lower house of the fortieth and forty-first congresses, and was elected United States senator from his native state in 1870, 1878 and 1885. He was nominated for the vice-presidency in 1884 on the ticket with Blaine, but was defeated. General Logan was the author of "The Great Conspiracy, its origin and history," published in 1885. He died at Washington, December 26, 1886. 

Letter/label or barOHN CHARLES FREMONT, the first Republican candidate for president, was born in Savannah, Georgia, January 21, 1813. He graduated from Charleston College (South Carolina) in 1830, and turned his attention to civil engineering. He was shortly afterward employed in the department of government surveys on the Mississippi, and constructing maps of that region. He was made lieutenant of engineers, and laid before the war department a plan for penetrating the Rocky Mountain regions, which was accepted, and in 1842 he set out upon his first famous exploring expedition and explored the South Pass. He also planned an expedition to Oregon by a new route further south, but afterward joined his expedition with that of Wilkes in the region of the Great Salt Lake. He made a later expedition which penetrated the Sierra Nevadas, and the San Joaquin and Sacramento river valleys, making maps of all regions explored.

      In 1845 he conducted the great expedition which resulted in the acquisition of California, which it was believed the Mexican government was about to dispose of to England. Learning that the Mexican governor was preparing to attack the American settlements in his dominion, Fremont determined to forestall him. The settlers rallied to his camp, and in June, 1846, he defeated the Mexican forces at Sonoma Pass, and a month later completely routed the governor and his entire army. The Americans at once declared their independence of Mexico, and Fremont was elected governor of California. By this time Commodore Stockton had reached the coast with instructions from Washington to conquer California. Fremont at once joined him in that effort, which resulted in the annexation of California with its untold mineral wealth. Later Fremont became involved in a difficulty with fellow officers which resulted in a court martial, and the surrender of his commission. He declined to accept reinstatement. He afterward laid out a great road from the Mississippi river to San Francisco, and became the first United States senator from Califor-



nia, in 1849. In 1856 he was nominated by the new Republican party as its first candidate for president against Buchanan, and received 114 electoral votes, out of 296.

     In 1861 he was made major-general and placed in charge of the western department. He planned the reclaiming of the entire Mississippi valley, and gathered an army of thirty thousand men, with plenty of artillery, and was ready to move upon the confederate General Price, when he was deprived of his command. He was nominated for the presidency at Cincinnati in 1864, but withdrew. He was governor of Arizona in 1878, holding the position four years. He was interested in an engineering enterprise looking toward a great southern trans-continental railroad, and in his later years also practiced law in New York. He died July 13, 1890. 

Letter/label or barENDELL PHILLIPS, the orator and abolitionist, and a conspicuous figure in American history, was born November 29, 1811, at Boston, Massachusetts. He received a good education at Harvard College, from which he graduated in 1831, and then entered the Cambridge Law School. After completing his course in that institution, in 1833, he was admitted to the bar, in 1834, at Suffolk. He entered the arena of life at the time when the forces of liberty and slavery had already begun their struggle that was to culminate in the Civil war. William Lloyd Garrison, by his clearheaded, courageous declarations of the anti-slavery principles, had done much to bring about this struggle. Mr. Phillips was not a man that could stand aside and see a great struggle being carried on in the interest of humanity and look passively on. He first attracted attention as an orator in 1837, at a meeting that was called to protest against the murder of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy. The meeting would have ended in a few perfunctory resolutions had not Mr. Phillips by his manly eloquence taken the meeting out of the hands of the few that were inclined to temporize and avoid radical utterances. Having once started out in this career as an abolitionist Phillips never swerved from what he deemed his duty, and never turned back. He gave up his legal practice and launched himself heart and soul in the movement for the liberation of the slave. He was an orator of very great ability and by his earnest efforts and eloquence he did much in arousing public sentiment in behalf of the anti-slavery cause possibly more than any one man of his time. After the abolition of slavery Mr. Phillips was, if possible, even busier than before in the literary and lecture field. Besides temperance and women's rights, he lectured often and wrote much on finance, and the relations of labor and capital, and his utterances on whatever subject always bore the stamp of having emanated from a master mind. Eminent critics have stated that it might fairly be questioned whether there has ever spoken in America an orator superior to Phillips. The death of this great man occurred February 4, 1884. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN was one of the greatest generals that the world has ever produced and won immortal fame by that strategic and famous "march to the sea," in the war of the Rebellion. He was born February 8, 1820, at Lancaster, Ohio, and was reared in the family of the Hon. Thomas Ewing, as his father died when he was but nine years of age. He entered West Point in 1836, war graduated from the same in 1840, and appointed a second lieutenant in the Third

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