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He favored a dissolution of the union, and declared the constitution which bound the free states to the slave states "A covenant with death and an agreement with hell." In 1843 he became president of the American Anti-Slavery society, which position he held until 1865, when slavery was no more. During all this time the "Liberator" had continued to promulgate antislavery doctrines, but in 1865 Garrison resigned his position, and declared his work was completed. He died May 24, 1879. 

Letter/label or barOHN BROWN (" Brown of Ossawatomie"), a noted character in American history, was born at Torrington, Connecticut, May 9, 1800. In his childhood he removed to Ohio, where he learned the tanner's trade. He married there, and in 1855 settled in Kansas. He lived at the village of Ossawatomie in that state, and there began his fight against slavery. He advocated immediate emancipation, and held that the negroes of the slave states merely waited for a leader in an insurrection that would result in their freedom. He attended the convention called at Chatham, Canada, in 1859, and was the leading spirit in organizing a raid upon the United States arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. His plans were well laid, and carried out in great secrecy. He rented a farm house near Harper's Ferry in the summer of 1859, and on October 16th of that year, with about twenty followers, he surprised and captured the United States arsenal, with all its supplies and arms. To his surprise, the negroes did not come to his support, and the next day he was attacked by the Virginia state militia, wounded and captured. He was tried in the courts of the state, convicted, and was hanged at Charlestown, December 2, 1859. The raid and its results had a tremendous effect, and hastened the culmination of the troubles between the north and south. The south had the advantage in discussing this event, claiming that the sentiment which inspired this act of violence was shared by the anti-slavery element of the country. 

Letter/label or barDWIN BOOTH had no peer upon the American stage during his long career as a star actor. He was the son of a famous actor, Junius Brutus Booth, and was born in 1833 at his father's home at Belair, near Baltimore. At the age of sixteen he made his first appearance on the stage, at the Boston Museum, in a minor part in "Richard III." It was while playing in California in 1851 that an eminent critic called general attention to the young actor's unusual talent. However, it was not until 1863, at the great Shakspearian revival at the Winter Garden Theatre, New York, that the brilliancy of his career began. His Hamlet held the boards for 100 nights in succession, and from that time forth Booth's reputation was established. In 1868 he opened his own theatre (Booth's Theater) in New York. Mr. Booth never succeeded as a manager, however, but as an actor he was undoubtedly the most popular man on the American stage, and perhaps the most eminent one in the world. In England he also won the greatest applause.

     Mr. Booth's work was confined mostly to Shakspearean roles, and his art was characterized by intellectual acuteness, fervor, and poetic feeling. His Hamlet, Richard II, Richard III, and Richelieu gave play to his greatest powers. In 1865, when his brother, John Wilkes Booth, enacted his great crime, Edwin Booth resolved to retire from the stage, but was persuaded (sic) to reconsider that decision. The odium did not in any way attach to the



great actor, and his popularity was not affected. In all his work Mr. Booth clung closely to the legitimate and the traditional in drama, making no experiments, and offering little encouragement to new dramatic authors. His death occurred in New York, June 7, 1894. 

Letter/label or barOSEPH HOOKER, a noted American officer, was born at Hadley, Massachusetts, November 13, 1814. He graduated from West Point Military Academy in 1837, and was appointed lieutenant of artillery. He served in Florida in the Seminole war, and in garrison until the outbreak of the Mexican war. During the latter he saw service as a staff officer and was breveted captain, major and lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at Monterey, National Bridge and Chapultepec. Resigning his commission in 1833 he took up farming in California, which he followed until 1861. During this time he acted as superintendent of military roads in Oregon. At the outbreak of the Rebellion Hooker tendered his services to the government, and, May 17, 1861, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He served in the defence of Washington and on the lower Potomac until his appointment to the command of a division in the Third Corps, in March, 1862. For gallant conduct at the siege of Yorktown and in the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Frazier's Farm and Malvern Hill he was made major-general. At the head of his division he participated in the battles of Manassas and Chantilly. September 6, 1862, he was placed at the head of the First Corps, and in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam acted with his usual gallantry, being wounded in the latter engagement. On rejoining the army in November he was made brigadier-general in the regular army. On General Burnside attaining the command of the Army of the Potomac General Hooker was placed in command of the center grand division, consisting of the Second and Fifth Corps. At the head of these gallant men he participated in the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. In January, 1863, General Hooker assumed command of the Army of the Potomac, and in May following fought the battle of Chancellorsville. At the time of the invasion of Pennsylvania, owing to a dispute with General Halleck, Hooker requested to be relieved of his command, and June 28 was succeeded by George G. Meade. In September, 1863, General Hooker was given command of the Twentieth Corps and transferred to the Army of the Cumberland, and distinguished himself at the battles of Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ringgold. In the Atlanta campaign he saw almost daily service and merited his well-known nickname of "Fighting Joe." July 30, 1864, at his own request, he was relieved of his command. He subsequently was in command of several military departments in the north, and in October, 1864, was retired with the full rank of major-general. He died October 31, 1879. 

Letter/label or barAY GOULD, one of the greatest financiers that the world has ever produced was born May 27, 1836, at Roxbury, Delaware county, New York. He spent his early years on his father's farm and at the age of fourteen entered Hobart Academy, New York, and kept books for the village blacksmith. He acquired a taste for mathematics and surveying and on leaving school found employment in making the surveyor's map of Ulster county. He surveyed very extensively in the state and accumulated five thousand dollars as the fruits of his labor. He



was then stricken with typhoid fever but recovered and made the acquaintance of one Zadock Pratt, who sent him into the western part of the state to locate a site for a tannery. He chose a fine hemlock grove, built a sawmill and blacksmith shop and was soon doing a large lumber business with Mr. Pratt. Mr. Gould soon secured control of the entire plant, which he sold out just before the panic of 1857 and in this year he became the largest stockholder in the Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, bank. Shortly after the crisis he bought the bonds of the Rutland & Washington Railroad at ten cents on the dollar, and put all his money into railroad securities. For along time he conducted this road which he consolidated with the Rensselaer & Saratoga Railroad. In 1859 he removed to New York and became a heavy investor in Erie Railroad stocks, entered that company and was president until its reorganization in 1872. In December, 1880, Mr. Gould was in control of ten thousand miles of railroad. In 1887 he purchased the controlling interest in the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co., and was a joint owner with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Co. of the western portion of the Southern Pacific line. Other lines soon came under his control, aggregating thousand of miles, and he soon was recognized as one of the world's greatest railroad magnates. He continued to hold his place as one of the master financiers of the century until the time of his death which occurred December 2, 1892. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS HART BENTON, a very prominent United States senator and statesman, was born at Hillsborough, North Carolina, March 14, 1782. He removed to Tennessee in early life, studied law, and began to practice at Nashville about 1810.

     During the war of 1812-1815 he served as colonel of a Tennessee regiment under General Andrew Jackson. In 1815 he removed to St. Louis, Missouri, and in 1820 was chosen United States senator for that state. Having been re-elected in 1826, he supported President Jackson in his opposition to the United States bank and advocated a gold and silver currency, thus gaining the name of "Old Bullion," by which he was familiarly known. For many years he was the most prominent man in Missouri, and took rank among the greatest statesmen of his day. He was a member of the senate for thirty years and opposed the extreme states' rights policy of John C. Calhoun. In 1852 he was elected to the house of representatives in which he opposed the repeal of the Missouri compromise. He was opposed by a powerful party of States' Rights Democrats in Missouri, who defeated him as a candidate for governor of that state in 1856.

     Colonel Benton published a considerable work in two volumes in 1854-56, entitled "Thirty Years' View, or a History of the Working of the American Government for Thirty Years, 1820-50." He died April 10, 1858. 

Letter/label or barTEPHEN ARNOLD DOUGLAS.--One of the most prominent figures in political circles during the intensely exciting days that preceded the war, and a leader of the Union branch of the Democratic party was the gentleman whose name heads this sketch. He was born at Brandon, Rutland county, Vermont, April 23, 1813, of poor but respectable parentage. His father, a practicing physician, died while our subject was but an infant, and his mother, with two small children and but small means, could give him but the rudiments of an education.



At the age of fifteen young Douglas engaged at work in the cabinet making business to raise funds to carry him through college. After a few years of labor he was enabled to pursue an academical course, first at Brandon, and later at Canandaigua, New York. In the latter place he remained until 1833, taking up the study of law. Before he was twenty, however, his funds running low, he abandoned all further attempts at education, determining to enter at once the battle of life. After some wanderings through the western states he took up his residence at Jacksonville, Illinois, where, after teaching school for three months, he was admitted to the bar, and opened an office in 1834. Within a year from that time, so rapidly had he risen in his profession, he was chosen attorney general of the state, and warmly espoused the principles of the Democratic party. He soon became one of the most popular orators in Illinois. It was at this time he gained the name of the " Little Giant." In 1835 he resigned the position of attorney general having been elected to the legislature. In 1841 he was chosen judge of the supreme court of Illinois which he resigned two years later to take a seat in congress. It was during this period of his life, while a member of the lower house, that he established his reputation and took the side of those who contended that congress had no constitutional right to restrict the extension of slavery further than the agreement between the states made in 1820. This, in spite of his being opposed to slavery, and only on grounds which he believed to be right, favored what was called the Missouri compromise. In 1847 Mr. Douglas was chosen United States senator for six years, and greatly distinguished himself. In 1852 he was re-elected to the same office. During this latter term, under his leadership, the "Kansas-Nebraska bill" was carried in the senate. In 1858, notwithstanding the fierce contest made by his able competitor for the position, Abraham Lincoln, and with the administration of Buchanan arrayed against him, Mr. Douglas was re-elected senator. After the trouble in the Charleston convention, when by the withdrawal of several state delegates without a nomination, the Union Democrats, in convention at Baltimore, in 1860, nominated Mr. Douglas as their candidate for presidency. The results of this election are well known and the great events of 1861 coming on, Mr. Douglas was spared their full development, dying at Chicago, Illinois, June 3, 1861, after a short illness. His last words to his children were, "to obey the laws and support the constitution of the United States." 

Letter/label or barAMES MONROE, fifth president of the United States, was born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, April 28, 1758. At the age of sixteen he entered William and Mary College, but two years later the Declaration of Independence having been adopted, he left college and hastened to New York where he joined Washington's army as a military cadet. At the battle of Trenton Monroe performed gallant service and received a wound in the shoulder, and was promoted to a captaincy. He acted as aide to Lord Sterling at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth. Washington then sent him to Virginia to raise a new regiment of which he was to be colonel. The exhausted condition of Virginia made this impossible, but he received his commission. He next entered the law office of Thomas Jefferson to study law, as there was no opening for him as an officer in the army. In



1782 he was elected to the Virginia assembly, and the next year he was elected to the Continental congress. Realizing the inadequacy of the old articles of confederation, he advocated the calling of a convention to consider their revision, and introduced in congress a resolution empowering congress to regulate trade, lay import duties, etc. This resolution was referred to a committee, of which he was chairman, and the report led to the Annapolis convention, which called a general convention to meet at Philadelphia in 1787, when the constitution was drafted. Mr. Monroe began the practice of law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, and was soon after elected to the legislature, and appointed as one of the committee to pass upon the adoption of the constitution. He opposed it, as giving too much power to the central government. He was elected to the United States senate in 1789, where he allied himself with the Anti-Federalists or ''Republicans," as they were sometimes called. Although his views as to neutrality between France and England were directly opposed to those of the president, yet Washington appointed him minister to France. His popularity in France was so great that the antagonism of England and her friends in this country brought about his recall. He then became governor of Virginia. He was sent as envoy to France in 1802; minister to England in 1803; and envoy to Spain in 1805. The next year he returned to his estate in Virginia, and with an ample inheritance enjoyed a few years of repose. He was again called to be governor of Virginia, and was then appointed secretary of state by President Madison. The war with England soon resulted, and when the capital was burned by the British, Mr. Monroe became secretary of war also, and planned the measures for the defense of New Orleans. The treasury being exhausted and credit gone, he pledged his own estate, and thereby made possible the victory of Jackson at New Orleans.

     In 1817 Mr. Monroe became president of the United States, having been a candidate of the "Republican" party, which at that time had begun to be called the "Democratic" party. In 1820 he was re-elected, having two. hundred and thirty-one electoral votes out of two hundred and thirty-two. His administration is known as the ''Era of good-feeling," and party lines were almost wiped out. The slavery question began to assume importance at this time, and the Missouri Compromise was passed. The famous ''Monroe Doctrine" originated in a great state paper of President Monroe upon the rumored interference of the Holy Alliance to prevent the formation of free republics in South America. President Monroe acknowledged their independence, and promulgated his great "Doctrine," which has been held in reverence since. Mr. Monroe's death occurred in New York on July 4, 1831. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS ALVA EDISON, the master wizard of electrical science and whose name is synonymous with the subjugation of electricity to the service of man, was born in 1847 at Milan, Ohio, and it was at Port Huron, Michigan, whither his parents had moved in 1854, that his self-education began-for he never attended school for more than two months. He eagerly devoured every book he could lay his hands on and is said to have read through an encyclopedia without missing a word. At thirteen he began his working life as a trainboy upon the Grand Trunk Railway between Port Huron and Detroit. Much of his time was now spent in Detroit, where he found increased facilities for reading at the public libraries.



He was not content to be a newsboy, so he got together three hundred pounds of type and started the issue of the "Grand Trunk Herald." It was only a small amateur weekly, printed on one side, the impression being made from the type by hand. Chemical research was his next undertaking and a laboratory was added to his movable publishing house, which, by the way, was an old freight car. One day, however, as he was experimenting with some phosphorus, it ignited and the irate conductor threw the young seeker after the truth, chemicals and all, from the train. His office and laboratory were then removed to the cellar of his father's house. As he grew to manhood he decided to become an operator. He won his opportunity by saving the life of a child, whose father was an old operator, and out of gratitude he gave Mr. Edison lessons in telegraphy. Five months later he was competent to fill a position in the railroad office at Port Huron. Hence he peregrinated to Stratford, Ontario, and thence successively to Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Memphis, Louisville and Boston, gradually becoming an expert operator and gaining experience that enabled him to evolve many ingenious ideas for the improvement of telegraphic appliances. At Memphis he constructed an automatic repeater, which enabled Louisville and New Orleans to communicate direct, and received nothing more than the thanks of his employers. Mr. Edison came to New York in 1870 in search of an opening more suitable to his capabilities and ambitions. He happened to be in the office of the Laws Gold Reporting Company when one of the instruments got out of order, and even the inventor of the system could not make it work. Edison requested to be allowed to attempt the task, and in a few minutes he had overcome the difficulty and secured an advantageous engagement. For several years he had a contract with the Western Union and the Gold Stock companies, whereby he received a large salary, besides a special price for all telegraphic improvements he could suggest. Later, as the head of the Edison General Electric company, with its numerous subordinate organizations and connections all over the civilized world, he became several times a millionaire. Mr. Edison invented the phonograph and kinetograph which bear his name, the carbon telephone, the tasimeter, and the duplex and quadruplex systems of telegraphy. 

Letter/label or barAMES LONGSTREET, one of the most conspicuous of the Confederate generals during the Civil war, was born in 1820 in South Carolina, but was early taken by his parents to Alabama where he grew to manhood and received his early education. He graduated at the United States military academy in 1842, entering the army as lieutenant and spent a few years in the frontier service. When the Mexican war broke out he was called to the front and participated in all the principal battles of that war up to the storming of Chapultepec, where he received severe wounds. For gallant conduct at Contreras, Cherubusco, and Molino del Rey he received the brevets of captain and major. After the close of the Mexican war Longstreet served as adjutant and captain on frontier service in Texas until 1858 when he was transferred to the staff as paymaster with rank of major. In June, 1861, he resigned to join the Confederacy and immediately went to the front, commanding a brigade at Bull Run the following month. Promoted to be major-general in 1862 he thereafter bore a conspicuous



part and rendered valuable service to the Confederate cause. He participated in many of the most severe battles of the Civil war including Bull Run (first and second), Seven Pines, Gaines' Mill, Fraziers Farm, Malvern Hill, Antietam, Frederickburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, Petersburg and most of the fighting about Richmond.

     When the war closed General Longstreet accepted the result, renewed his allegiance to the government, and thereafter labored earnestly to obliterate all traces of war and promote an era of good feeling between all sections of the country. He took up his residence in New Orleans, and took an active interest and prominent part in public affairs, served as surveyor of that port for several years; was commissioner of engineers for Louisiana, served four years as school commissioner, etc. In 1875 he was appointed supervisor of internal revenue and settled in Georgia. After that time he served four years as United States minister to Turkey, and also for a number of years was United States marshal of Georgia, besides having held other important official positions. 

Letter/label or barOHN RUTLEDGE, the second chief-justice of the United States, was born at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739. He was a son of John Rutledge, who had left Ireland for America about five years prior to the birth of our subject, and a brother of Edward Rutledge, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. John Rutledge received his legal education at the Temple, London, after which he returned to Charleston and soon won distinction at the bar. He was elected to the old Colonial congress in 1765 to protest against the "Stamp Act," and was a member of the South Carolina convention of 1774, and of the Continental congress of that and the succeeding year. In 1776 he was chairman of the committee that draughted the constitution of his state, and was president of the congress of that state. He was not pleased with the state constitution, however, and resigned. In 1779 he was again chosen governor of the state, and granted extraordinary powers, and he at once took the field to repel the British. He joined the army of General Gates in 1782, and the same year was elected to congress. He was a member of the constitutional convention which framed our present constitution. In 1789 he was appointed an associate justice of the first supreme court of the United States. He resigned to accept the position of chief-justice of his own state. Upon the resignation of Judge Jay, he was appointed chief-justice of the United States in 1795. The appointment was never confirmed, for, after presiding at one session, his mind became deranged, and he was succeeded by Judge Ellsworth. He died at Charleston, July 23, 1800. 

Letter/label or barALPH WALDO EMERSON was one of the most noted literary men of his time. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, May 25, 1803. He had a minister for an ancestor, either on the paternal or maternal side, in every generation for eight generations back. His father, Rev. William Emerson, was a native of Concord, Massachusetts, born May 6, 1769, graduated at Harvard, in 1789, became a Unitarian minister; was a fine writer and one of the best orators of his day; died in 1811.

     Ralph Waldo Emerson was fitted for college at the public schools of Boston, and graduated at Harvard College in 1821, winning about this time several prizes for es-



says. For five years he taught school in Boston; in 1826 was licensed to preach, and in 1829 was ordained as a colleague to Rev. Henry Ware of the Second Unitarian church in Boston. In 1832 he resigned, making the announcement in a sermon of his unwillingness longer to administer the rite of the Lord's Supper, after which he spent about a year in Europe. Upon his return he began his career as a lecturer before the Boston Mechanics Institute, his subject being "Water." His early lectures on "Italy" and "Relation of Man to the Globe" also attracted considerable attention; as did also his biographical lectures on Michael Angelo, Milton, Luther, George Fox, and Edmund Burke. After that time he gave many courses of lectures in Boston and became one of the best known lecturers in America. But very few men have rendered such continued service in this field. He lectured for forty successive seasons before the Salem, Massachusetts, Lyceum and also made repeated lecturing tours in this country and in England. In 1835 Mr. Emerson took up his residence at Concord, Massachusetts, where he continued to make his home until his death which occurred April 27, 1882.

     Mr. Emerson's literary work covered a wide scope. He wrote and published many works, essays and poems, which rank high among the works of American literary men. A few of the many which he produced are the following: "Nature;" "The Method of Nature;" ''Man Thinking;" "The Dial;" ''Essays;" ''Poems;" 'English Traits;" "The Conduct of Life;" "May-Day and other Poems" and "Society and Solitude;" besides many others. He was a prominent member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of the American Philosophical Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society and other kindred associations. 

Letter/label or barLEXANDER T. STEWART, one of the famous merchant princes of New York, was born near the city of Belfast, Ireland, in 1803, and before he was eight years of age was left an orphan without any near relatives, save an aged grandfather. The grandfather being a pious Methodist wanted to make a minister of young Stewart, and accordingly put him in a school with that end in view and he graduated at Trinity College, in Dublin. When scarcely twenty years of age he came to New York. His first employment was that of a teacher, but accident soon made him a merchant. Entering into business relations with an experienced man of his acquaintance he soon found himself with the rent of a store on his hands and alone in a new enterprise. Mr. Stewart's business grew rapidly in all directions, but its founder had executive ability sufficient for any and all emergencies, and in time his house became one of the greatest mercantile establishments of modern times, and the name of Stewart famous. Mr. Stewart's death occurred April 10, 1876. 

Letter/label or barAMES FENIMORE COOPER.--In speaking of this noted American novelist, William Cullen Bryant said: "He wrote for mankind at large, hence it is that he has earned a fame wider than any American author of modern times. The creations of his genius shall survive through centuries to come, and only perish with our language." Another eminent writer (Prescott) said of Cooper: "In his productions every American must take an honest pride; for surely no one has succeeded like Cooper in the portraiture of American character, or truth has given such glowing and eminently truthful pictures of American scenery."

     James Fenimore Cooper was born Sep-



tember 15, 1789, at Burlington, New Jersey, and was a son of Judge William Cooper. About a year after the birth of our subject the family removed to Otsego county, New York, and founded the town called "Cooperstown." James Fenimore Cooper spent his childhood there and in 1802 entered Yale College, and four years later became a midshipman in the United States navy. In 1811 he was married, quit the seafaring life, and began devoting more or less time to literary pursuits. His first work was "Precaution," a novel published in 1819, and three years later he produced "The Spy, a Tale of Neutral Ground," which met with great favor and was a universal success. This was followed by many other works, among which may be mentioned the following: ''The Pioneers," ''The Pilot," ''Last of the Mohicans," The Prairie," The Red Rover," ''The Manikins," "Homeward Bound," "Home as Found," "History of the, United States Navy,"" The Pathfinder," "Wing and Wing," "Afloat and Ashore," "The Chain-Bearer," "Oak Openings," etc. J. Fenimore Cooper died at Cooperstown, New York, September 14, 1851.  

Letter/label or bar ARSHALL FIELD, one of the merchant princes of America, ranks among the most successful business men of the century. He was born in 1835 at Conway, Massachusetts. He spent his early life on a farm and secured a fair education in the common schools, supplementing this with a course at the Conway Academy. His natural bent ran in the channels of commercial life, and at the age of seventeen he was given a position in a store at Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Mr. Field remained there four years and removed to Chicago in 1856. He began his career in Chicago as a clerk in the wholesale dry goods house of Cooley, Wadsworth'& Company, which later became Cooley, Farwell & Company, and still later John V. Farwell & Company. He remained with them four years and exhibited marked ability, in recognition of which he was given a partnership. In 1865 Mr. Field and L. Z. Leiter, who was also a member of the firm, withdrew and formed the firm of Field, Palmer & Leiter, the third partner being Potter Palmer, and they continued in business until 1867, when Mr. Palmer retired and the firm became Field, Leiter & Company. They ran under the latter name until 1881, when Mr. Leiter retired and the house has since continued under the name of Marshall Field & Company. The phenomenal success accredited to the house is largely due to the marked ability of Mr. Field, the house had become one of the foremost in the west, with an annual sale of $8,000,000 in 1870. The total loss of the firm during the Chicago fire was $3,500,000 of which $2,500,000 was recovered through the insurance companies. It rapidly recovered from the effects of this and to-day the annual sales amount to over $40,000,000. Mr. Field's real estate holdings amounted to $10,000,000. He was one of the heaviest subscribers to the Baptist University fund although he is a Presbyterian, and gave $I,000,000 for the endowment of the Field Columbian Museum, one of the greatest institutions of the kind in the world. 

Letter/label or barDGAR WILSON NYE, who won an immense popularity under the pen name of "Bill Nye," was one of the most eccentric humorists of his day. He was born August 25, 1850, at Shirley, Piscataqua county; Maine, "at a very early age" as he expresses it. He took an academic course in



River Falls, Wisconsin, from whence, after his graduation, he removed to Wyoming Territory. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1876. He began when quite young to contribute humorous sketches to the newspapers, became connected with various western journals and achieved a brilliant success as a humorist. Mr. Nye settled later in New York City where he devoted his time to writing funny articles for the big newspaper syndicates. He wrote for publication in book form the following: "Bill Nye and the Boomerang," "The Forty Liars," "Baled Hay," "Bill Nye's Blossom Rock," "Remarks," etc. His death occurred February 21, 1896, at Asheville, North Carolina. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS DE WITT TALMAGE, one of the most celebrated American preachers, was born January 7, 1832, and was the youngest of twelve children. He made his preliminary studies at the grammar school in New Brunswick, New Jersey. At the age of eighteen he joined the church and entered the University of the City of New York, and graduated in May, 1853. The exercises were held in Niblo's Garden and his speech aroused the audience to a high pitch of enthusiasm. At the close of his college duties he imagined himself interested in the law and for three years studied law. Dr. Talmage then perceived his mistake and prepared himself for the ministry at the Reformed Dutch Church Theological Seminary at New Brunswick, New Jersey. Just after his ordination the young minister received two calls, one from Piermont, New York, and the other from Belleville, New Jersey. Dr. Talmage accepted the latter and for three years filled that charge, when he was called to Syracuse, New York. Here it was that his sermons first drew large crowds of people to his church, and from thence dates his popularity. Afterward he became the pastor of the Second Reformed Dutch church, of Philadelphia, remaining seven years, during which period he first entered upon the lecture platform and laid the foundation for his future reputation. At the end of this time he received three calls, one from Chicago, one from San Francisco, and one from the Central Presbyterian church of Brooklyn, which latter at that time consisted of only nineteen members with a congregation of about thirty-five. This church offered him a salary of seven thousand dollars and he accepted the call. He soon induced the trustees to sell the old church and build a new one. They did so and erected the Brooklyn Tabernacle, but it burned down shortly after it was finished. By prompt sympathy and general liberality a new church was built and formally opened in February, 1874. It contained seats for four thousand, six hundred and fifty, but if necessary seven thousand could be accommodated. In October, 1878, his salary was raised from seven thousand dollars to twelve thousand dollars, and in the autumn of 1889 the second tabernacle was destroyed by fire. A third tabernacle was built and it was formally dedicated on Easter Sunday, 1891. 

Letter/label or barOHN PHILIP SOUSA, conceded as being one of the greatest band leaders in the world, won his fame while leader of the United States Marine Band at Washington, District of Columbia. He was not originally a band player but was a violinist, and at the age of seventeen he was conductor of an opera company, a profession which he followed for several years, until he was offered the leadership of the Marine Band at Washington. The proposition was repugnant to him at first but he accepted the

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