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principal presidental possibilities in the Democratic convention held at St. Louis in 1876. In 1888 he was the Democratic nominee for vice-president on the ticket with Grover Cleveland, but was defeated. Allen Granberry Thurman died December 12, 1895, at Columbus, Ohio. 

Letter/label or barHARLES FARRAR BROWNE, better known as "Artemus Ward," was born April 26, 1834, in the village of Waterford, Maine. He was thirteen years old at the time of his father's death, and about a year later he was apprenticed to John M. Rix, who published the "Coos County Democrat" at Lancaster, New Hampshire. Mr. Browne remained with him one year, when, hearing that his brother Cyrus was starting a paper at Norway, Maine, he left Mr. Rix and determined to get work on the new paper. He worked for his brother until the failure of the newspaper, and then went to Augusta, Maine, where he remained a few weeks and then removed to Skowhegan, and secured a position on the "Clarion." But either the climate or the work was not satisfactory to him, for one night he silently left the town and astonished his good mother by appearing unexpectedly at home. Mr. Browne then received some letters of recommendation to Messrs. Snow and Wilder, of Boston, at whose office Mrs. Partington's (B. P. Shillaber) "Carpet Bag" was printed, and he was engaged and remained there for three years. He then traveled westward in search of employment and got as far as Tiffin, Ohio, where he found employment in the office of the "Advertiser," and remained there some months when he proceeded to Toledo, Ohio, where he became one of the staff of the ''Commercial," Which position he held until 1857. Mr. Browne next went to Cleveland, Ohio, and became the local editor of the "Plain Dealer," and it was in the columns of this paper that he published his first articles and signed them "Artemus Ward." In 1860 he went to New York and became the editor of "Vanity Fair," but the idea of lecturing here seized him, and he was fully determined to make the trial. Mr. Browne brought out his lecture, "Babes in the Woods" at Clinton Hall, December 23, 1861, and in 1862 he published his first book entitled, "Artemus Ward; His Book." He attained great fame as a lecturer and his lectures were not confined to America, for he went to England in 1866, and became exceedingly popular, both as a lecturer and a contributor to ''Punch." Mr. Browne lectured for the last time January 23, 1867. He died in Southampton, England, March 6, 1867. 

Letter/label or barHURLOW WEED, a noted journalist and politician, was born in Cairo, New York, November 15, 1797. He learned the printer's trade at the age of twelve years, and worked at this calling for several years in various villages in central New York. He served as quartermaster-sergeant during the war of 1812. In 1818 he established the "Agriculturist," at Norwich, New York, and became editor of the "Anti-Masonic Enquirer," at Rochester, in 1826. In the same year he was elected to the legislature and re-elected in 1830, when he located in Albany, New York, and there started the "Evening journal," and conducted it in opposition to the Jackson administration and the nullification doctrines of Calhoun. He became an adroit party manager, and was instrumental in promoting the nominations of Harrison, Taylor and Scott for the presidency. In 1856 and in 1860 he threw his support to W. H. Seward, but when defeated in his object, he gave cordial support to



Fremont and Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln prevailed upon him to visit the various capitals of Europe, where he proved a valuable aid to the administration in moulding the opinions of the statesmen of that continent favorable to the cause of the Union.

      Mr. Weed's connection with the "Evening Journal" was severed in 1862, when he settled in New York, and for a time edited the ''Commercial Advertiser." In 1868 he retired from active life. His '' Letters from Europe and the West Indies," published in 1866, together with some interesting ''Reminiscences," published in the "Atlantic Monthly," in 1870, an autobiography, and portions of an extensive correspondence will be of great value to writers of the political history of the United States. Mr. Weed died in New York, November 22, 1882. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM COLLINS WHITNEY, one of the prominent Democratic politicians of the country and ex-secretary of the navy, was born July 5th, 1841, at Conway, Massachusetts, and received his education at Williston Seminary, East Hampton, Massachusetts. Later he attended Yale College, where he graduated in 1863, and entered the Harvard Law School, which he left in 1864. Beginning practice in New York city, he soon gained a reputation as an able lawyer. He made his first appearance in public affairs in 1871, when he was active in organizing a young men's Democratic club. In 1872 he was the recognized leader of the county Democracy and in 1875 was appointed corporation counsel for the city of New York. He resigned the office, 1882, to attend to personal interests and on March 5, 1885, he was appointed secretary of the navy by President Cleveland. Under his administration the navy of the United States rapidly rose in rank among the navies of the world. When he retired from office in 1889, the vessels of the United States navy designed arid contracted for by him were five double-turreted monitors, two new armor-dads, the dynamite cruiser ''Vesuvius," and five unarmored steel and iron cruisers.

      Mr. Whitney was the leader of the Cleveland forces in the national Democratic convention of 1892. 

Letter/label or barDWIN FORREST, the first and greatest American tragedian, was born in Philadelphia in 1806. His father was a tradesman, and some accounts state that he had marked out a mercantile career for his son, Edwin, while others claim that he had intended him for the ministry. His wonderful memory, his powers of mimicry and his strong musical voice, however, attracted attention before he was eleven years old, and at that age he made his first appearance on the stage. The costume in which he appeared was so ridiculous that he left the stage in a fit of anger amid a roar of laughter from the audience. This did not discourage him, however, and at the age of fourteen, after some preliminary training in elocution, he appeared again, this time as Young Norvel, and gave indications of future greatness. Up to 1826 he played entirely with strolling companies through the south and west, but at that time he obtained an engagement at the Bowery Theater in New York. From that time his fortune was made. His manager paid him $40 per night, and it is stated that he loaned Forrest to other houses from time to time at $200 per night. His great successes were Virginius, Damon, Othello, Coriolanus, William Tell, Spartacus and Lear. He made his first appearance in London in 1836, and his success was unquestioned from the start. In 1845, on his



second appearance in London, he became involved in a bitter rivalry with the great English actor. Macready, who had visited America two years before. The result was that Forrest was hissed from the stage, and it was charged that Macready had instigated the plot. Forrest's resentment was so bitter that he himself openly hissed Macready from his box a few nights later. In 1848 Macready again visited America at a time when American admiration and enthusiasm for Forrest had reached its height. Macready undertook to play at Astor Place Opera House in May, 1849, but was hooted off the stage. A few nights later Macready made a second attempt to play at the same house, this time under police protection. The house was filled with Macready's friends, but the violence of the mob outside stopped the play, and the actor barely escaped with his life. Upon reading the riot act the police and troops were assaulted with stones. The troops replied, first with blank cartridges, and then a volley of lead dispersed the mob, leaving thirty men dead or seriously wounded.

      After this incident Forrest's popularity waned, until in 1855 he retired from the stage. He reappeared in 1860, however, and probably the most remunerative period of his life was between that date and the close of the Civil war. His last appearance on the stage was at the Globe Theatre, Boston, in Richelieu, in April, 1872, his death occurring December 12 of that year. 

Letter/label or barOAH PORTER, D. D., LL. D., was one of the most noted educators, authors and scientific writers of the United States. He was born December 14, 1811, at Farmington, Connecticut, graduated at Yale College in 1831, and was master of Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven in 1831-33. During 1833-35 he was a tutor at Yale, and at the same time was pursuing his theological studies, and became pastor of the Congregational church at New Milford, Connecticut, in April, 1836. Dr. Porter removed to Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1843, and was chosen professor of metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale in 1846. He spent a year in Germany in the study of modern metaphysics in 1853-54, and in 1871 he was elected president of Yale College. He resigned the presidency in 1885, but still remained professor of metaphysics and moral philosophy. He was the author of a number of works, among which are the following: " Historical Essay," written in commemoration of the 200th aniversary (sic) of the settlement of the town of Farmington; ' Educational System of the Jesuits Compared;" '' The Human Intellect," with an introduction upon psychology and the soul; "Books and Reading;" "American Colleges and the American Public;" Elements of Intellectual Philosophy;" "The Science of Nature versus the Science of Man;" ''Science and Sentiment;" ''Elements of Moral Science." Dr. Porter was the principal editor of the revised edition of Webster's Dictionary in 1864, and contributed largely to religious reviews and periodicals. Dr. Porter's death occurred March 4, 1892, at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Letter/label or barOHN TYLER, tenth president of the United States, was born in Charles City county, Virginia, March 29, 1790, and was the son of judge John Tyler, one of the most distinguished men of his day.

      When but twelve years of age young John Tyler entered William and Mary College, graduating from there in 1806. He took up the study of law and was admitted to the bar in 1809, when but nineteen years



of age. On attaining his majority in 1811 he was elected a member of the state legislature, and for five years held that position by the almost unanimous vote of his county. He was elected to congress in 1816, and served in that body for four years, after which for two years he represented his district again in the legislature of the state. While in congress, he opposed the United States bank, the protective policy and internal improvements by the United States government. 1825 saw Mr. Tyler governor of Virginia, but in 1827 he was chosen member of the United States senate, and held that office for nine years. He therein opposed the administration of Adams and the tariff bill of 1828, sympathized with the nullifiers of South Carolina and was the only senator who voted against the Force bill for the suppression of that state's insipient rebellion. He resigned his position as senator on account of a disagreement with the legislature of his state in relation to his censuring President Jackson. He retired to Williamsburg, Virginia, but being regarded as a martyr by the Whigs, whom, heretofore, he had always opposed, was supported by many of that party for the vice-presidency in 1836. He sat in the Virginia legislature as a Whig in 1839-40, and was a delegate to the convention of that party in 1839. This national convention nominated him for the second place on the ticket with General William H. H. Harrison, and he was elected vice-president in November, 1840. President Harrison dying one month after his inauguration, he was succeeded by John Tyler. He retained the cabinet chosen by his predecessor, and for a time moved in harmony with the Whig party. He finally instructed the secretary of the treasury, Thomas Ewing, to submit to congress a bill for the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States, which was passed by congress, but vetoed by the president on account of some amendments he considered unconstitutional. For this and other measures he was accused of treachery to his party, and deserted by his whole cabinet, except Daniel Webster. Things grew worse until he was abandoned by the Whig party formally, when Mr. Webster resigned. He was nominated at Baltimore, in May, 1844, at the Democratic convention, as their presidential candidate, but withdrew from the canvass, as he saw he had not succeeded in gaining the confidence of his old party. He then retired from politics until February, 1861, when he was made president of the abortive peace congress, which met in Washington. He shortly after renounced his allegiance to the United States and was elected a member of the Confederate congress. He died at Richmond, January 17, 1862.

     Mr. Tyler married, in 1813, Miss Letitia Christian, who died in 1842 at Washington. June 26, 1844, he contracted a second marriage, with Miss Julia Gardner, of New York. 

Letter/label or barOLLIS POTTER HUNTINGTON, one of the great men of his time and who has left his impress upon the history of our national development, was born October 22, 1821, at Harwinton, Connecticut. He received a common-school education and at the age of fourteen his spirit of getting along in the world mastered his educational propensities and his father's objections and he left school. He went to California in the early days and had opportunities which he handled masterfully. Others had the same opportunities but they did not have his brains nor his energy, and it was he who overcame obstacles and reaped the reward of his genius. Transcontinental railways



were inevitable, but the realization of this masterful achievement would have been delayed to a much later day if there had been no Huntington. He associated himself with Messrs. Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, and Charles Crocker, and they furnished the money necessary for a survey across the Sierra Nevadas, secured a charter for the road, and raised, with the government's aid, money enough to construct and equip that railway, which at the time of its completion was a marvel of engineering and one of the wonders of the world. Mr. Huntington became president of the Southern Pacific railroad, vice-president of the Central Pacific; trustee of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company, and a director of the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company, besides being identified with many other business enterprises of vast importance. 

Letter/label or barEORGE A. CUSTER, a famous Indian fighter, was born in Ohio in 1840. He graduated at West Point in 1861, and served in the Civil war; was at Bull Run in 1861, and was in the Peninsular campaign, being one of General McClellan's aides-de, camp. He fought in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam in 1863, and was with General Stoneman on his famous cavalry raid. He was engaged in the battle of Gettysburg, and was there made brevet-major. In 1863 was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. General Custer was in many skirmishes in central Virginia in 1863-64, and as present at the following battles of the Richmond campaign: Wilderness, Todd's Tavern, Yellow Tavern, where he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel; Meadow Bridge, Haw's Shop, Cold Harbor, Trevillian Station. In the Shenandoah Valley 1864-65 he was brevetted colonel at Opequan Creek, and at Cedar Creek he was made brevet major-general for gallant conduct during the engagement. General Custer was in command of a cavalry division in the pursuit of Lee's army in 1865, and fought at Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, where he was made brevet brigadier-general; Sailors Creek and Appomattox, where he gained additional honors and was made brevet major-general, and was given the command of the cavalry in the military division of the southwest and Gulf, in 1865. After the establishment of peace he went west on frontier duty and performed gallant and valuable service in the troubles with the Indians. He was killed in the massacre on the Little Big Horn river, South Dakota, June 25, 1876. 

Letter/label or barANIEL WOLSEY VOORHEES, celbrated (sic) as ''The Tall Sycamore of the Wabash," was born September 26, 1827, in Butler county, Ohio. When he was two months old his parents removed to Fountain county, Indiana. He grew to manhood on a farm, engaged in all the arduous work pertaining to rural life. In 1845 he entered the Indiana Asbury University, now the De Pauw, from which he graduated in 1849. He took up the study of law at Crawfordsville, and in 1851 began the practice of his profession at Covington, Fountain county, Indiana. He became a law partner of United States Senator Hannegan, of Indiana, in 1852, and in 1856 he was an unsuccessful candidate for congress. In the following year he took up his residence in Terre Haute, Indiana. He was United States district attorney for Indiana from 1857 until 1861, and he had during this period been elected to congress, in 1860. Mr. Voorhees was re-elected to congress in 1862 and 1864, but he was unsuccessful in the election of 1866. However, he was returned to con-



gress in 1868, where he remained until 1874, having been re-elected twice. In 1877 he was appointed United States senator from Indiana to fill a vacancy caused by the death of O. P. Morton, and at the end of the term was elected for the ensuing term, being reelected in 1885 and in 1891 to the same office. He served with distinction on many of the committees, and took a very prominent part in the discussion of all the important legislation of his time. His death occurred in August, 189_. 

Letter/label or barLEXANDER GRAHAM BELL, famous as one of the inventors of the telephone, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, March 3rd, 1847. He received his early education in the high school and later he attended the university, and was specially trained to follow his grandfather's profession, that of removing impediments of speech. He emigrated to the United States in 1872, and introduced into this country his father's invention of visible speech in the institutions for deaf-mutes. Later he was appointed professor of vocal physiology in the Boston University. He worked for many years during his leisure hours on his telephonic discovery, and finally perfected it and exhibited it publicly, before it had reached the high state of perfection to which he brought it. His first exhibition of it was at the Centennial Exhibition that was held in Philadelphia in 1876. Its success is now established throughout the civilized world. In 1882 Prof. Bell received a diploma and the decoration of the Legion of Honor from the Academy of Sciences of France. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM HICKLING PRESCOTT, the justly celebrated historian and author, was a native of Salem, Massachusetts, and was born May 4, 1796. He was the son of judge William Prescott and the grandson of the hero of Bunker Hill, Colonel William Prescott.

     Our subject in 1808 removed with the family to Boston, in the schools of which city he received his early education. He entered Harvard College as a sophomore in 1811, having been prepared at the private classical college of Rev. Dr. J. S. J. Gardiner. The following year he received an injury in his left eye which made study through life a matter of difficulty. He graduated in 1814 with high honors in the classics and belle lettres. He spent several months on the Azores Islands, and later visited England, France and Italy, returning home in 1817. In June, 1818, he founded a social and literary club at Boston for which he edited "The Club Room," a periodical doomed to but a short life. May 4, 1820, he married Miss Susan Amory. He devoted several years after that event to a thorough study of ancient and modern history and literature. As the fruits of his labors he published several well written essays upon French and Italian poetry and romance in the "North American Review." January 19, 1826, he decided to take up his first great historical work, the ''History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella." To this he gave the labor of ten years, publishing the same December 25, 1837. Although placed at the head of all American authors, so diffident was Prescott of his literary merit that although he had four copies of this work printed for his own convenience, he hesitated a long time before giving it to the public, and it was only by the solicitation of friends, especially of that talented Spanish scholar, George Ticknor, that he was induced to do so. Soon the volumes were translated into French, Italian, Dutch and German, and the work was recognized



throughout the world as one of the most meritorious of historical compositions. In 1843 he published the "Conquest of Mexico," and in 1847 the "Conquest of Peru." Two years later there came from his pen a volume of ''Biographical and Critical Miscellanies." Going abroad in the summer of 1850, he was received with great distinction in the literary circles of London, Edinburgh, Paris, Antwerp and Brussels. Oxford University conferred the degree of D. C. L. upon him. In 1855 he issued two volumes of his "History of the Reign of Philip the Second," and a third in 1858. In the meantime he edited Robertson's ''Charles the Fifth," adding a history of the life of that monarch after his abdication. Death cut short his work on the remaining volumes of " Philip the Second," coming to him at Boston, Massachusetts, May 28, 1859. 

Letter/label or barLIVER HAZARD PERRY, a noted American commodore, was born in South Kingston, Rhode Island, August 23, 1785. He saw his first service as a midshipman in the United States navy in April, 1799. He cruised with his father, Captain Christopher Raymond Perry, in the West Indies for about two years. In 1804 he was in the war against Tripoli, and was made lieutenant in 1807. At the opening of hostilities with Great Britain in 1812 he was given command of a fleet of gunboats on the Atlantic coast. At his request he was transferred, a year later, to Lake Ontario, where he served under Commodore Chauncey, and took an active part in the attack on Fort George. He was ordered to fit out a squadron on Lake Erie, which he did, building most of his vessels from the forests along the shore, and by the summer of 1813 he had a fleet of nine vessels at Presque Isle, now Erie, Pennsylvania. September 10th he attacked and captured the British fleet near Put-in-Bay, thus clearing the lake of hostile ships. His famous dispatch is part of his fame, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours." He cooperated with Gen. Harrison, and the success of the campaign in the northwest was largely due to his victory. The next year he was transferred to the Potomac, and assisted in the defense of Baltimore. After the war he was in constant service with the various squadrons in cruising in all parts of the world. He died of yellow fever on the Island of Trinidad, August 23, 1819. His remains were conveyed to Newport, and buried there, and an imposing obelisk was erected to his memory by the State of Rhode Island. A bronze statue was also erected in his honor, the unveiling taking place in 1885. 

Letter/label or barOHN PAUL JONES, though a native of Scotland, was one of America's most noted fighters during the Revolutionary war. He was born July 6, 1747. His father was a gardener, but the young man soon became interested in a seafaring life and at the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a sea captain engaged in the American trade. His first voyage landed him in Virginia, where he had a brother who had settled there several years prior. The failure of the captain released young Jones from his apprenticeship bonds, and he was engaged as third mate of a vessel engaged in the slave trade. He abandoned this trade after a few years, from his own sense of disgrace. He took passage from Jamaica for Scotland in 1768, and on the voyage both the captain and the mate died and he was compelled to take command of the vessel for the remainder of the voyage. He soon after became master of the vessel. He returned to Virginia about 1773 to settle up the estate



of his brother, and at this time added the name "Jones," having previously been known as John Paul. He settled down in Virginia, but when the war broke out in 1775 he offered his services to congress and was appointed senior lieutenant of the flagship "Alfred," on which he hoisted the American flag with his own hands, the first vessel that had ever carried a flag of the new nation. He was afterward appointed to the command of the "Alfred," and later of the "Providence," in each of which vessels he did good service, as also in the "Ranger," to the command of which he was later appointed. The fight that made him famous, however, was that in which he captured the "Serapis," off the coast of Scotland. He was then in command of the "Bon Hoinme Richard," which had been fitted out for him by the French government and named by Jones in honor of Benjamin Franklin, or "Good Man Richard," Franklin being author of the publication known as " Poor Richard's Almanac." The fight between the '' Richard" and the "Serapis" lasted three hours, all of which time the vessels were at close range, and most of the time in actual contact. Jones' vessel was on fire several times, and early in the engagement two of his guns bursted, rendering the battery useless. Also an envious officer of the Alliance, one of Jones' own fleet, opened fire upon the "Richard" at a critical time, completely disabling the vessel. Jones continued the fight, in spite of counsels to surrender, and after dark the "Serapis" struck her colors, and was hastily boarded by Jones and his crew, while the "Richard" sank, bows first, after the wounded had been taken on board the "Serapis." Most of the other vessels of the fleet of which the " Serapis" was convoy, surrendered, and were taken with the "Serapis" to France, where Jones was received with greatest honors, and the king presented him with an elegant sword and the cross of the Order of Military Merit. Congress gave him a vote of thanks and made him commander of a new ship, the "America," but the vessel was afterward given to France and Jones never saw active sea service again. He came to America again, in 1787, after the close of the war, and was voted a gold medal by congress. He went to Russia and was appointed rear-admiral and rendered service of value against the Turks, but on account of personal enmity of the favorites of the emperor he was retired on a pension. Failing to collect this, he returned to France, where he died, July 18, 1792. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS MORAN, the well-known painter of Rocky Mountain scenery, was born in Lancashire, England, in 1837. He came to America when a child, and showing artistic tastes, he was apprenticed to a wood engraver in Philadelphia. Three years later he began landscape painting, and his style soon began to exhibit signs of genius. His first works were water-colors, and though without an instructor he began the use of oils, he soon found it necessary to visit Europe, where he gave particular attention to the works of Turner. He joined the Yellowstone Park exploring expedition and visited the Rocky Mountains in 1871 and again in 1873, making numerous sketches of the scenery. The most noteworthy results were his "Grand Canon of the Yellowstone," and The Chasm of the Colorado," which were purchased by congress at $10,000 each, the first of which is undoubtedly the finest landscape painting produced in this country. Mr. Moran has subordinated art to nature, and the subjects he has chosen leave little ground for fault



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M. S. Quay, Com. C. Vanderbilt, Henry M. Teller,
Wm. M. Everts, John Sherman, Peter Cooper,
W. B. Allison, Geo. W. Childs, Jay Gould.

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