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finding on that account. "The Mountain of the Holy Cross," The Groves Were God's First Temples," The Cliffs of Green River," ''The Children of the Mountain," "The Ripening of the Leaf," and others have given him additional fame, and while they do not equal in grandeur the first mentioned, in many respects from an artistic standpoint they are superior. 

Letter/label or barELAND STANFORD was one of the greatest men of the Pacific coast and also had a national reputation. He was born March 9, 1824, in Albany county, New York, and passed his early life on his father's farm. He attended the local schools of the county and at the age of twenty began the study of law. He entered the law office of Wheaton, Doolittle and Hadley, at Albany, in 1845, and a few years later he moved to Port Washington, Wisconsin, where he practiced law four years with moderate success. In 1852 Mr. Stanford determined to push further west, and, accordingly went to California, where three of his brothers were established in business in the mining towns. They took Leland into partnership, giving him charge of a branch store at Michigan Bluff, in Placer county. There he developed great business ability and four years later started a mercantile house of his own in San Francisco, which soon became one of the most substantial houses on the coast, On the formation of the Republican party he interested himself in politics, and in 186o was sent as a delegate to the convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln. In the autumn of 1861 he was elected, by an immense majority, governor of California. Prior to his election as governor he had been chosen president of the newly-organized Central Pacific Railroad Company, and after leaving the executive chair he devoted all of his time to the construction of the Pacific end of the transcontinental railway. May 10, 1869, Mr. Stanford drove the last spike of the Central Pacific road, thus completing the route across the continent. He was also president of the Occidental and Oriental Steamship Company. He had but one son, who died of typhoid fever, and as a monument to his child he founded the university which bears his son's name, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. Mr. Stanford gave to this university eighty-three thousand acres of land, the estimated value of which is $8,000,000, and the entire endowment is $20,000,000. In 1885 Mr. Stanford was elected United States senator as a Republican, to succeed J. T. Farley, a Democrat, and was re-elected in 1891. His death occurred June 20, 1894, at Palo Alto, California. 

Letter/label or barTEPHEN DECATUR, a famous commodore in the United States navy, was born in Maryland in 1779. He entered the naval service in 1798. In 1804, when the American vessel Philadelphia had been run aground and captured in the harbor of Tripoli, Decatur, at the head of a few men, boarded her and burned her in the face of the guns from the city defenses. For this daring deed he was made captain. He was given command of the frigate United States at the breaking out of the war of 1812, and in October of that year he captured the British frigate Macedonian, and was rewarded with a gold medal by congress. After the close of the war he was sent as commander of a fleet of ten vessels to chastise the dey of Algiers, who was preying upon American commerce with impunity and demanding tribute and ransom for the release of American citizens captured. Decatur



captured a number of Algerian vessels, and compelled the dey to sue for peace. He was noted for his daring and intrepidity, and his coolness in the face of danger, and helped to bring the United States navy into favor with the people and congress as a means of defense and offence in time of war. He was killed in a duel by Commodore Barron, March 12, 1820. 

Letter/label or barAMES KNOX POLK, the eleventh president of the United States, 1845 to 1849, was born November 2, 1795, in Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, and was the eldest child of a family of six sons. He removed with his father to the Valley of the Duck River, in Tennessee, in 1806. He attended the common schools and became very proficient in the lower branches of education, and supplemented this with a course in the Murfreesboro Academy, which he entered in 1813 and in the autumn of 1815 he became a student in the sophomore class of the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, and was graduated in 1818. He then spent a short time in recuperating his health and then proceeded to Nashville, Tennessee, where he took up the study of law in the office of Felix Grundy. After the completion of his law studies he was admitted to the bar and removed to Columbia, Maury county, Tennessee, and started in the active practice of his profession. Mr. Polk was a Jeffersonian "Republican" and in 1823 he was elected to the legislature of Tennessee. He was a strict constructionist and did not believe that the general government had the power to carry on internal improvements in the states, but deemed it important that it should have that power, and wanted the constitution amended to that effect. But later on he became alarmed lest the general government might become strong enough to abolish slavery and therefore gave his whole support to the "State's Rights" movement, and endeavored to check the centralization of power in the general government. Mr. Polk was chosen a member of congress in 1825, and held that office until 1839. He then withdrew, as he was the successful gubernatorial candidate of his state. He had become a man of great influence in the house, and, as the leader of the Jackson party in that body, weilded great influence in the election of General Jackson to the presidency. He sustained the president in all his measures and still remained in the house after General Jackson had been succeeded by Martin Van Buren. He was speaker of the house during five sessions of congress. He was elected governor of Tennessee by a large majority and took the oath of office at Nashville, October 4, 1839. He was a candidate for re-election but was defeated by Governor Jones, the Whig candidate. In 1844 the most prominent question in the election was the annexation of Texas, and as Mr. Polk was the avowed champion of this cause he was nominated for president by the pro-slavery wing of the democratic party, was elected by a large majority, and was inaugurated March 4, 1845. President Polk formed a very able cabinet, consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. Walker, William L. Marcy, George Bancroft, Cave Johnson, and John Y. Mason. The dispute regarding the Oregon boundary was settled during his term of office and a new department was added to the list of cabinet positions, that of the Interior. The low tariff bill of 1846 was carried and the financial system of the country was reorganized. It was also during President Polk's term that the Mexican war was successfully conducted, which resulted in the acquisition of Califor-



nia and New Mexico. Mr. Polk retired from the presidency March 4, 1849, after having declined a re-nomination, and was succeeded by General Zachary Taylor, the hero of the Mexican war. Mr. Polk retired to private life, to his home in Nashville, where he died at the age of fifty-four on June 9, 1849. 

Letter/label or barNNA DICKINSON (Anna Elizabeth Dickinson), a noted lecturer and public speaker, was born at Philadelphia, October 28, 1842. Her parents were Quakers, and she was educated at the Friends' free schools in her native city. She early manifested an inclination toward elocution and public speaking, and when, at the age of 18, she found an opportunity to appear before a national assemblage for the discussion of woman's rights, she at once established her reputation as a public speaker. From 1860 to the close of the war and during the exciting period of reconstruction, she was one of the most noted and influential speakers before the American public, and her popularity was unequaled by that of any of her sex. A few weeks after the defeat and death of Colonel Baker at Ball's Bluff, Anna Dickinson, lecturing in New York, made the remarkable assertion, "Not the incompetency of Colonel Baker, but the treachery of General McClellan caused the disaster at Ball's Bluff." She was hissed and hooted off the stage. A year later, at the same hall and with much the same class of auditors, she repeated the identical words, and the applause was so great and so long continued that it was impossible to go on with her lecture for more than half an hour. The change of sentiment had been wrought by the reverses and dismissal of McClellan and his ambition to succeed Mr. Lincoln as president.

      Ten years after the close of the war, Anna Dickinson was not heard of on the lecture platform, and about that time she made an attempt to enter the dramatic profession, but after appearing a number of times in different plays she was pronounced a failure. 

Letter/label or barOBERT J. BURDETTE.--Some personal characteristics of Mr. Burdette were quaintly given by himself in the following words: "Politics? Republican after the strictest sect. Religion ? Baptist. Personal appearance ? Below medium height, and weigh one hundred and thirty-five pounds, no shillings and no pence. Rich? Not enough to own a yacht. Favorite reading? Poetry and history--know Longfellow by heart, almost. Write for magizines (sic) ? Have more 'declined with thanks' letters than would fill a trunk. Never able to get into a magazine with a line. Care about it? Mad as thunder. Think about starting a magazine and rejecting everbody's (sic) articles except my own." Mr. Burdette was born at Greensborough, Pennsylvania, in 1844. He served through the war of the rebellion under General Banks "on an excursion ticket" as he felicitously described it, "good both ways, conquering in one direction and running in the other, pay going on just the same." He entered into journalism by the gateway of New York correspondence for the "Peoria Transcript," and in 1874 went on the "Burlington Hawkeye" of which he became the managing editor, and the work that he did on this paper made both himself and the paper famous in the world of humor. Mr. Burdette married in 1870, and his wife, whom he called "Her Little Serene Highness," was to him a guiding light until the day of her death, and it was probably the unconscious pathos with which he described her in his work that broke the barriers that had kept him out of the maga-



zines and secured him the acceptance of his "Confessions" by Lippincott some years ago, and brought him substantial fame and recognition in the literary world. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS, one of the leading novelists of the present century and author of a number of works that gained for him a place in the hearts of the people, was born March I, 1837, at Martinsville, Belmont county, Ohio. At the age of three years he accompanied his father, who was a printer, to Hamilton, Ohio, where he learned the printer's trade. Later he was engaged on the editorial staff of the "Cincinnati Gazette" and the "Ohio State Journal." During 1861-65 he was the United States consul at Venice, and from 1871 to 1878 he was the editor-in-chief of the ''Atlantic Monthly." As a writer he became one of the most fertile and readable of authors and a pleasing poet. In 1885 he became connected with "Harper's Magazine." Mr. Howells was author of the list of books that we give below: ''Venetian Life,'' ''Italian Journeys," '' No Love Lost," "Suburban Sketches," "Their Wedding Journey," "A Chance Acquaintance," "A Foregone Conclusion," "Dr. Breen's Practice," "A Modern Instance," "The Rise of Silas Lapham," "Tuscan Cities," others."Indian Summer," besides many He also wrote the "Poem of Two Friends," with J. J. Piatt in 1860, and some minor dramas: "The Drawing Room Car," "The Sleeping Car," etc., that are full of exqusite (sic) humor and elegant dialogue. 

Letter/label or barAMES RUSSELL LOWELL was a son of the Rev. Charles Lowell, and was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 18 19. He graduated at Harvard College in 1838 as class poet, and went to Harvard Law School, from which he was graduated in 1840, and commenced the practice of his profession in Boston, but soon gave his undivided attention to literary labors. Mr. Lowell printed, in 1841, a small volume of poems entitled "A Year's Life," edited with Robert Carter; in 1843, "The Pioneer," a literary and critical magazine (monthly), and in 1848 another book of poems, that contained several directed against slavery. He published in 1844 a volume of "Poems" and in 1845 "Conversations on Some of the Old Poets," "The Vision of Sir Launfal," ''A Fable for Critics," and "The Bigelow Papers," the latter satirical essays in dialect poetry directed against slavery and the war with Mexico. In 1851 -52 he traveled in Europe and resided in Italy for a considerable time, and delivered in I854-55 a course of lectures on the British poets, before the Lowell Institute, Boston. Mr. Lowell succeeded Longfellow in January, 1855, as professor of modern languages and literature at Harvard College, and spent another year in Europe qualifying himself for that post. He edited the "Atlantic Monthly" from 1857 to 1862, and the "North American Review" from 1863 until 1872. From 1864 to 1870 he published the following works: "Fireside Travels," '' Under the Willows," ''The Commemoration Ode," in honor of the alumni of Harvard who had fallen in the Civil war; "The Cathedral," two volumes of essays; "Among My Books" and "My Study Windows," and in 1867 he published a new series of the " Bigelow Papers." He traveled extensively in Europe in 1872-74, and received in person the degree of D. C. L. at Oxford and that of LL. D. at the University of Cambridge, England. He was also interested in political life and held



many important offices. He was United States minister to Spain in 1877 and was also minister to England in 1880-85. On January 2, 1884, he was elected lord rector of St. Andrew University in Glasgow, Scotland, but soon after he resigned the same. Mr. Lowell's works enjoy great popularity in the United States and England. He died August 12, 1891. 

Letter/label or barOSEPH HENRY, one of America's greatest scientists, was born at Albany, New York, December 17, 1797. He was educated in the common schools of the city and graduated from the Albany Academy, where he became a professor of mathematics in 1826. In 1827 he commenced a course of investigation, which he continued for a number of years, and the results produced had great effect on the scientific world. The first success was achieved by producing the electric magnet, and he next proved the possibility of exciting magnetic energy at a distance, and it was the invention of Professor Henry's intensity magnet that first made the invention of electric telegraph a possibility. He made a statement regarding the practicability of applying the intensity magnet to telegraphic uses, in his article to the "American Journal of Science" in 1831. During the same year he produced the first mechanical contrivance ever invented for maintaining continuous motion by means of electro-magnetism, and he also contrived a machine by which signals could be made at a distance by the use of his electro-magnet, the signals being produced by a lever striking on a bell. Some of his electro-magnets were of great power, one carried over a ton and another not less than three thousand six hundred pounds. In 1832 he discovered that secondary currents could be produced in a long conductor by the induction of the primary current upon itself, and also in the same year he produced a spark by means of a purely magnetic induction. Professor Henry was elected, in 1832, professor of natural philosophy in the College of New Jersey, and in his earliest lectures at Princeton, demonstrated the feasibility of the electric telegraph. He visited Europe in 18'37, and while there he had an interview with Professor Wheatstone, the inventor of the needle magnetic telegraph. In 1846 he was elected secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, being the first incumbent in that office, which he held until his death. Professor Henry was elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in 1849, and of the National Academy of Sciences. He was made chairman of the lighthouse board of the United States in 1871 and held that position up to the time of his death. He received the honorary degree of doctor of laws from Union College in 1829, and from Harvard University in 1851, and his death occurred May 13, 1878. Among his numerous works may be mentioned the following: ''Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism," "American Philosophic Trans," and many articles in the ''American Journal of Science," the journal of the Franklin Institute; the proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and in the annual reports of the Smithsonian Institution from its foundation. 

Letter/label or barRANKLIN BUCHANAN, the famous rear-admiral of the Confederate navy during the rebellion, was born in Baltimore, Maryland. He became a United States midshipman in 1815 and was promoted through the various grades of the service and became a captain in 1855. Mr. Buchanan resigned his captaincy in order to join



the Confederate service in 1861 and later he asked to be reinstated, but his request was refused and he then entered into the service of the Confederate government. He was placed in command of the frigate " Merrimac" after she had been fitted up as an ironclad, and had command of her at the time of the battle of Hampton Roads. It was he who had command when the "Merrimac" sunk the two wooden frigates, "Congress" and "Cumberland," and was also in command during part of the historical battle of the '' Merrimac" and the "Monitor," where he was wounded and the command devolved upon Lieutenant Catesby Jones. He was created rear-admiral in the Confederate service and commanded the Confederate fleet in Mobile bay, which was defeated by Admiral Farragut, August 5, 1864, Mr. Buchanan was in command of the "Tennessee," an ironclad, and during the engagement he lost one of his legs and was taken prisoner in the end by the Union fleet. After the war he settled in Talbot county, Maryland, where he died May 11, 1874. 

Letter/label or barICHARD PARKS BLAND, a celebrated American statesman, frequently called "the father of the house," because of his many years of service in the lower house of congress, was born August 19, 1835, near Hartford, Kentucky, where he received a plain academic education. He moved, in 1855, to Missouri, from whence he went overland to California, afterward locating in Virginia City, now in the state of Nevada, but then part of the territory of Utah. While there he practiced law, dabbled in mines and mining in Nevada and California for several years, and served for a time as treasurer of Carson county, Nevada. Mr. Bland returned to Missouri in 1805, where he engaged in the practice of law at Rolla, Missouri, and in 1869 removed to Lebanon, Missouri. He began his congressional career in 1873, when he was elected as a Democrat to the forty-third congress, and he was regularly re-elected to every congress after that time up to the fifty-fourth, when he was defeated for re-election, but was returned to the fifty-fifth congress as a Silver Democrat. During all his protracted service, while Mr. Bland was always steadfast in his support of democratic measures, yet he won his special renown as the great advocate of silver, being strongly in favor of the free and unlimited coinage of silver, and on account of his pronounced views was one of the candidates for the presidential nomination of the Democratic party at Chicago in 1896. 

Letter/label or barANNY DAVENPORT (F. L. G. Davenport) was of British birth, but she belongs to the American stage. She was the daughter of the famous actor, E. L. Davenport, and was born in London in 1850. She first went on the stage as a child at the Howard Athenaeum, Boston, and her entire life was spent upon the stage. She played children's parts at Burton's old theater in Chambers street, and then, in 1862, appeared as the King of Spain in ''Faint Heart Never Won Fair Lady." Here she attracted the notice of Augustin Daly, the noted manager, then at the Fifth Avenue theater, who offered her a six weeks' engagement with her father in "London Assurance." She afterwards appeared at the same house in a variety of characters, and her versatility was favorably noticed by the critics. After the burning of the old Fifth Avenue, the present theater of that name was built at Twenty-eighth street, and here Miss Davenport appeared in a play written for her by



Mr. Daly. She scored a great success. She then starred in this play throughout the country, and was married to Mr. Edwin F. Price, an actor of her company, in 1880. In 1882 she went to Paris and purchased the right to produce in America Sardou's great emotional play, "Fedora." It was put on at the Fourteenth Street theater in New York, and in it she won popular favor and became one of the most famous actresses of her time. 

Letter/label or barORACE BRIGHAM CLAFLIN, one of the greatest merchants America has produced, was born in Milford, Massachusetts, a son of John Claflin, also a merchant. Young Claflin started his active life as a clerk in his father's store, after having been offered the opportunity of a college education, but with the characteristic promptness that was one of his virtues he exclaimed, "No law or medicine for me." He had set his heart on being a merchant, and when his father retired he and his brother Aaron, and his brother-in-law, Samuel Daniels, conducted the business. Mr. Claflin was not content, however, to run a store in a town like Milford, and accordingly opened a dry goods store at Worcester, with his brother as a partner, but the partnership was dissolved a year later and H. B. Claflin assumed complete control. The business in Worcester had been conducted on orthodox principles, and when Mr. Claflin came there and introduced advertising as a means of drawing trade, he created considerable animosity among the older merchants. Ten years later he was one of the most prosperous merchants. He disposed of his business in Worcester for $30,000, and went to New York to search for a wider field than that of a shopkeeper. Mr. Claflin and William M. Bulkley started in the dry goods business there under the firm name of Bulkley & Claflin, in 1843, and Mr. Bulkley was connected with the firm until I851, when he retired. A new firm was then formed under the name of Claflin, Mellin & Co. This firm succeeded in founding the largest dry goods house in the world, and after weathering the dangers of the civil war, during which the house came very near going under, and was saved only by the superior business abilities of Mr. Claflin, continued to grow. The sales of the firm amounted to over $72,000,000 a year after the close of the war. Mr. Claflin died November 14, 1885. 

Letter/label or barHARLOTTE CUSHMAN (Charlotte Saunders Cushman), one of the most celebrated American actresses, was born in Boston, July 23, 1816. She was descended from one of the earliest Puritan families. Her first attempt at stage work was at the age of fourteen years in a charitable concert given by amateurs in Boston. From this time her advance to the first place on the American lyric stage was steady, until, in 1835, while singing in New Orleans, she suddenly lost control of her voice so far as relates to singing, and was compelled to retire. She then took up the study for the dramatic stage under the direction of Mr. Barton, the tragedian. She soon after made her debut as "Lady Macbeth." She appeared in New York in September, 1836, and her success was immediate. Her "Romeo" was almost perfect, and she is the only woman that has ever appeared in the part of " Cardinal Wolsey." She at different times acted as support of Forrest and Macready. Her London engagement, secured in 1845, after many and great discouragements, proved an unqualified success.



Her farewell appearance was at Booth's theater, New York, November 7, 1874, in the part of "Lady Macbeth," and after that performance an Ode by R. H. Stoddard was read, and a body of citizens went upon the stage, and in their name the venerable poet Longfellow presented her with a wreath of laurel with an inscription to the effect that "she who merits the palm should bear it." From the time of her appearance as a modest girl in a charitable entertainment down to the time of final triumph as a tragic queen, she bore herself with as much honor to womanhood as to the profession she represented. Her death occurred in Boston, February 15, 1876. By her profession she acquired a fortune of $600,000. 

Letter/label or barEAL DOW, one of the most prominent temperance reformers our country has known, was born in Portland, Me., March 20, 1804. He received his education in the Friends Seminary, at New Bedford, Massachusetts, his parents being members of that sect. After leaving school he pursued a mecrantile (sic) and manufacturing career for a number of years. He was active in the affairs of his native city, and in 1839 became chief of the fire department, and in 1851 was elected mayor. He was re-elected to the latter office in 1854. Being opposed to the liquor traffic he was a champion of the project of prohibition, first brought forward in 1839 by James Appleton. While serving his first term as mayor he drafted a bill for the "suppression of drinking houses and tippling shops," which he took to the legislature and which was passed without an alteration. In 1858 Mr. Dow was elected to the legislature. On the outbreak of the Civil war he was appointed colonel of the Thirteenth Maine Infantry and accompanied General Butler's expedition to New Orleans.

     In 1862 he was made brigadier-general. At the battle of Port Hudson May 27, 1863, he was twice wounded, and taken prisoner. He was confined at Libby prison and Mobile nearly a year, when, being exchanged, he resigned, his health having given way under the rigors of his captivity. He made several trips to England in the interests of temperance organization, where he addressed large audiences. He was the candidate of the National Prohibition party for the presidency in 1880, receiving about ten thousand votes. In 1884 he was largely instrumental in the amendment of the constitution of Maine, adopted by an overwhelming popular vote, which forever forbade the manufacture or sale of any intoxicating beverages, and commanding the legislature to enforce the prohibition. He died October 2, 1897. 

Letter/label or barACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth president of the United States, was born in Orange county, Virginia, September 24, 1784. His boyhood was spent on his father's plantation and his education was limited. In 1808 he was made lieutenant of the Seventh Infantry, and joined his regiment at New Orleans. He was promoted to captain in 1810, and commanded at Fort Harrison, near the present site of Terre Haute, in 1812, where, for his gallant defense, he was brevetted major, attaining full rank in 1814. In 1815 he retired to an estate near Louisville. In 1816 he re-entered the army as major, and was promoted to lieutenant-colonel and then to colonel. Having for many years been Indian agent over a large portion of the western country, he was often required in Washington to give advice and counsel in matters connected with the Indian bureau. He served through the Black Hawk Indian war of 1832, and in 1837 was ordered to the command of the



army in Florida, where he attacked the Indians in the swamps and brakes, defeated them and ended the war. He was brevetted brigadier-general and made commander-in-chief of the army in Florida. He was assigned to the command of the army of the southwest in 1840, but was soon after relieved of it at his request. He was then stationed at posts in Arkansas. In 1845 he was ordered to prepare to protect and defend Texas boundaries from invasion by Mexicans and Indians. On the annexation of Texas he proceeded with one thousand five hundred men to Corpus Christi, within the disputed territory. After reinforcement he was ordered by the Mexican General Ampudia to retire beyond the Nueces river, with which order he declined to comply. The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma followed, and he crossed the Rio Grande and occupied Matamoras May 18th. He was commissioned major-general for this campaign, and in September he advanced upon the city of Monterey and captured it after a hard fight. Here he took up winter quarters, and when he was about to resume activity in the spring he was ordered to send the larger part of his army to reinforce General Scott at Vera Cruz. After leaving garrisons at various points his army was reduced to about five thousand, mostly fresh recruits. He was attacked by the army of Santa Anna at Buena Vista, February 22, 1847, and after a severe fight completely routed the Mexicans. He received the thanks of congress and a gold medal for this victory. He remained in command of the " army of occupation" until winter, when he returned to the United States.

     In 1848 General Taylor was nominated by the Whigs for president. He was elected over his two opponents, Cass and Van Buren. Great bitterness was developing in the struggle for and against the extension of slavery, and the newly acquired territory in the west, and the fact that the states were now equally divided on that question, tended to increase the feeling. President Taylor favored immediate admission of California with her constitution prohibiting slavery, and the admission of other states to be formed out of the new territory as they might elect as they adopted constitutions from time to time. This policy resulted in the "Omnibus Bill," which afterward passed congress, though in separate bills; not, however, until after the death of the soldier-statesman, which occurred July 9, 1850. One of his daughters became the wife of Jefferson Davis. 

Letter/label or barELVILLE D. LANDON, better known as "Eli Perkins," author, lecturer and humorist, was born in Eaton, New York, September 7, 1839. He was the son of John Landon and grandson of Rufus Landon, a revolutionary soldier from Litchfield county, Connecticut. Melville was educated at the district school and neighboring academy, where he was prepared for the sophomore class at Madison University. He passed two years at the latter, when he was admitted to Union College, and graduated in the class of 1861, receiving the degree of A. M., in 1862. He was, at once, appointed to a position in the treasury department at Washington. This being about the time of the breaking out of the war, and before the appearance of any Union troops at the capital, he assisted in the organization of the "Clay Battalion," of Washington. Leaving his clerkship some time later, he took up duties on the staff of General A. L. Chetlain, who was in command at Memphis. In 1864 he resigned from the army and engaged in cotton planting in Arkansas



and Louisiana. In 1867 he went abroad, making the tour of Europe, traversing Russia. While in the latter country his old commander of the "Clay Battalion," General Cassius M. Clay, then United States minister at St. Petersburg, made him secretary of legation. In 1871, on returning to America, he published a history of the Franco-Prussian war, and followed it with numerous humorous writings for the public press under the name of '' Eli Perkins," which, with his regular contributions to the "Commercial Advertiser," brought him into notice, and spread his reputation as a humorist throughout the country. He also published "Saratoga in 1891 '" "Wit, Humor and Pathos," ''Wit and Humor of the Age," Kings of Platform and Pulpit," ''Thirty Years of Wit and Humor," "Fun and Fact," and "China and Japan." 

Letter/label or barEWIS CASS, one of the most prominent statesman and party leaders of his day, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, October 9, 1782. He studied law, and having removed to Zanesville, Ohio, commenced the practice of that profession in 1802. He entered the service of the American government in 1812 and was made a colonel in the army under General William Hull, and on the surrender of Fort Malden by that officer was held as a prisoner. Being released in 1813, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general and in 1814 appointed governor of Michigan Territory. After he had held that office for some sixteen years, negotiating, in the meantime, many treaties with the Indians, General Cass was made secretary of war in the cabinet of President Jackson, in 1831. He was, in 1836, appointed minister to France, which office he held for six years. In 1844 he was elected United States senator from Michigan. In 1846 General Cass opposed the Wilmot Proviso, which was an amendment to a bill for the purchase of land from Mexico, which provided that in any of the territory acquired from that power slavery should not exist. For this and other reasons he was nominated as Democratic candidate for the presidency of the United States in 1848, but was defeated by General Zachary Taylor, the Whig candidate, having but one hundred and thirty-seven electoral votes to his opponent's one hundred and sixty-three. In 1849 General Cass was re-elected to the senate of the United States, and in 1854 supported Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska bill. He became secretary of state in March, 1857, under President Buchanan, but resigned that office in December, 1860. He died June 17, 1866. The published works of Lewis Cass, while not numerous, are well written and display much ability. He was one of the foremost men of his day in the political councils of the Democratic party, and left a reputation for high probity and honor behind him. 

Letter/label or barE WITT CLINTON.--Probably there were but few men who were so popular in their time, or who have had so much influence in moulding events as the individual whose name honors the head of this article. De Witt Clinton was the son of General James Clinton, and a nephew of Governor George Clinton, who was the fourth vice-president of the United States. He was a native of Orange county, New York, born at Little Britain, March 2, 1769. He graduated from Columbia College, in his native state, in 1796, and took up the study of law. In 1790 he became private secretary to his uncle, then governor of New York. He entered public life as a Republican or anti-Federalist, and was elected to the lower

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