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house of the state assembly in 1797, and the senate of that body in 1798. At that time he was looked on as "the most rising man in the Union." In 1801 he was elected to the United States senate. In 1803 he was appointed by the governor and council mayor of the city of New York, then a very important and powerful office. Having been re-appointed, he held the office of mayor for nearly eleven years, and rendered great service to that city. Mr. Clinton served as lieutenant-governor of the state of New York, 1811-13, and was one of the commissioners appointed to examine and survey a route for a canal from the Hudson river to Lake Erie. Differing with President Madison, in relation to the war, in 1812, he was nominated for the presidency against that gentleman, by a coalition party called the Clintonians, many of whom were Federalists. Clinton received eight-nine (sic) electoral votes. His course at this time impaired his popularity for a time. He was removed from the mayoralty in 1814, and retired to private life. In 1815 he wrote a powerful argument for the construction of the Erie canal, then a great and beneficent work of which he was the principal promoter. This was in the shape of a memorial to the legislature, which, in 1817, passed a bill authorizing the construction of that canal. The same year he was elected governor of New York, almost unanimously, notwithstanding the opposition of a few who pronounced the scheme of the canal visionary. He was re-elected governor in 1820. He was at this time, also, president of the canal commissioners. He declined a re-election to the gubernatorial chair in 1822 and was removed from his place on the canal board two years later. But he was triumphantly elected to the office of governor that fall, and his pet project, rendered great service to that coalition party called the Clintonians, the Erie canal, was finished the next year. He was re-elected governor in 1826, but died while holding that office, February 11, 1828. 

Letter/label or barARON BURR, one of the many brilliant figures on the political stage in the early days of America, was born at Newark, New Jersey, February 6, 1756. He was the son of Aaron and Esther Burr, the former the president of the College of New Jersey, and the latter a daughter of Jonathan Edwards, who had been president of the same educational institution. Young Burr graduated at Princeton in 1772. In 1775 he joined the provincial army at Cambridge, Massachusetts. For a time, he served as a private soldier, but later was made an aide on the staff of the unfortunate General Montgomery, in the Quebec expedition. Subsequently he was on the staffs of Arnold, Putnam and Washington, the latter of whom he disliked. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and commanded a brigade on Monmouth's bloody field. In 1779, on account of feeble health, Colonel Burr resigned from the army. He took up the practice of law in Albany, New York, but subsequently removed to New York City. In 1789 he became attorney-general of that state. In 1791 he was chosen to represent the state of New York in the United States senate and held that position for six years. In 1800 he and Thomas Jefferson were both candidates for the presidency, and there being a tie in the electoral college, each having seventy-three votes, the choice was left to congress, who gave the first place to Jefferson and made Aaron Burr vice-president, as the method then was. In 1804 Mr. Burr and his great rival, Alexander Hamilton, met in a duel, which resulted in the death of the latter, Burr losing thereby con-



siderable political and social influence. He soon embarked in a wild attempt upon Mexico, and as was asserted, upon the southwestern territories of the United States. He was tried for treason at Richmond, Virginia, in 1807, but acquitted, and to avoid importunate creditors, fled to Europe. After a time, in 1812, he returned to New York, where he practiced law, and where he died, September 14, 1836. A man of great ability, brilliant and popular talents, his influence was destroyed by his unscrupulous political actions and immoral private life. 

Letter/label or barLBERT GALLATIN, one of the most distinguished statesmen of the early days of the republic, was born at Geneva, Switzerland, January 29, 1761. He was the son of Jean de Gallatin and Sophia A. Rolaz du Rosey Gallatin, representatives of an old patrician family. Albert Gallatin was left an orphan at an early age, and was educated under the care of friends of his parents. He graduated from the University of Geneva in 1779, and declining employment under one of the sovereigns of Germany, came to the struggling colonies, landing in Boston July 14, 1780. Shortly after his arrival he proceeded to Maine, where he served as a volunteer under Colonel Allen. He made advances to the government for the support of the American troops, and in November, 1780, was placed in command of a small fort at Passamaquoddy, defended by a force of militia, volunteers and Indians. In 1783 he was professor of the French language at Harvard University. A year later, having received his patrimony from Europe, he purchased large tracts of land in western Virginia, but was prevented by the Indians from forming the large settlement he proposed, and, in 1786, purchased a farm in Fayette county, Pennsylvania. In 1789 he was a member of the convention to amend the constitution of that state, and united himself with the Republican party, the head of which was Thomas Jefferson. The following year he was elected to the legislature of Pennsylvania, to which he was subsequently re-elected. In 1793 he was elected to the United States senate, but could not take his seat on account of not having been a citizen long enough. In 1794 Mr. Gallatin was elected to the representative branch of congress, in which he served three terms. He also took an important position in the suppression of the "whiskey insurrection." In 1801, on the accession of Jefferson to the presidency, Mr. Gallatin was appointed secretary of the treasury. In 1809 Mr. Madison offered him the position of secretary of state, but he declined, and continued at the head of the treasury until 1812, a period of twelve years. He exercised a great influence on the other departments and in the general administration, especially in the matter of financial reform, and recommended measures for taxation, etc., which were passed by congress, and became laws May 24, 1813. The same year he was sent as an envoy extraordinary to Russia, which had offered to mediate between this country and Great Britain, but the latter country refusing the interposition of another power, and agreeing to treat directly with the United States, in 1814, at Ghent, Mr. Gallatin, in connection with his distinguished colleagues, negotiated and signed the treaty of peace. In 1815, in conjunction with Messrs. Adams and Clay, he signed, at London, a commercial treaty between the two countries. In 1816, declining his old post at the head of the treasury, Mr. Gallatin was sent as minister to France, where he remained until 1823.



After a year spent in England as envoy extraordinary, he took up his residence in New York, and from that time held no public office. In 1830 he was chosen president of the council of the University of New York. He was, in 1831, made president of the National bank, which position he resigned in 1839. He died August 12, 1849. 

Letter/label or barILLARD FILLMORE, the thirteenth president of the United States, was born of New England parentage in Summer Hill, Cayuga county, New York, January 7, 1800. His school education was very limited, but he occupied his leisure hours in study. He worked in youth upon his father's farm in his native county, and at the age of fifteen was apprenticed to a wool carder and cloth dresser. Four years later he was induced by Judge Wood to enter his office at Montville, New York, and take up the study of law. This warm friend, finding young Fillmore destitute of means, loaned him money, but the latter, not wishing to incur a heavy debt, taught school during part of the time and in this and other ways helped maintain himself. In 1822 he removed to Buffalo, New York, and the year following, being admitted to the bar, he commenced the practice of his profession at East Aurora, in the same state. Here he remained until 1830, having, in the meantime, been admitted to practice in the supreme court, when he returned to Buffalo, where he became the partner of S. G. Haven and N. K. Hall. He entered politics and served in the state legislature from 1829 to 1832. He was in congress in 1833-35 and in 1837-41, where he proved an active and useful member, favoring the views of John Quincy Adams, then battling almost alone the slave-holding party in national politics, and in most of public questions acted with the Whig party. While chairman of the committee of ways and means he took a leading part in draughting the tariff bill of 1842. In 1844 Mr. Fillmore was the Whig candidate for governor of New York. In 1847 he was chosen comptroller of the state, and abandoning his practice and profession removed to Albany. In 1848 he was elected vice president on the ticket with General Zachary Taylor, and they were inaugurated the following March. On the death of the president, July 9, 1850, Mr. Fillmore was inducted into that office. The great events of his administration were the passage of the famous compromise acts of 1850, and the sending out of the Japan expedition of 1852.

      March 4, 1853, having served one term, President Fillmore retired from office, and in 1855 went to Europe, where he received marked attention. On returning home, in 1856, he was nominated for the presidency by the Native American or "Know-Nothing" party, but was defeated, James Buchanan being the successful candidate.

      Mr. Fillmore ever afterward lived in retirement. During the conflict of Civil war he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed, however, that his sympathy was with the southern confederacy. He kept aloof from the conflict without any words of cheer to the one party or the other. For this reason he was forgotten by both. He died of paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 1874. 

Letter/label or barETER F. ROTHERMEL, one of America's greatest and best-known historical painters, was born in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, July 8, 1817, and was of German ancestry. He received his earlier education in his native county, and in Philadelphia




learned the profession of land surveying. But a strong bias toward art drew him away and he soon opened a studio where he did portrait painting. This soon gave place to historical painting, he having discovered the bent of his genius in that direction. Besides the two pictures in the Capitol at Washington--' 'De Soto Discovering the Mississippi" and "Patrick Henry Before the Virginia House of Burgesses "--Rothermel painted many others, chief among which are: "Columbus Before Queen Isabella," ''Martyrs of the Colosseum," "Cromwell Breaking Up Service in an English Church," and the famous picture of the "Battle of Gettysburg." The last named was painted for the state of Pennsylvania, for which Rothermel received the sum of $25,000, and which it took him four years to plan and to paint. It represents the portion of that historic field held by the First corps, an exclusively Pennsylvania body of men, and was selected by Rothermel for that reason. For many years most of his time was spent in Italy, only returning for short periods. He died at Philadelphia, August 16, 1895. 

Letter/label or barDMUND KIRBY SMITH, one of the distinguished leaders upon the side of the south in the late Civil war, was born at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1824. After receiving the usual education he was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, from which he graduated in 1845 and entered the army as second lieutenant of infantry. During the Mexican war he was made first lieutenant and captain for gallant conduct at Cerro Gordo and Contreras. From 1849 to 1852 he was assistant professor of mathematics at West Point. He was transferred to the Second cavalry with the rank of captain in 1855, served on the frontier, and was wounded in a fight with Comanche Indians in Texas, May 13, 1859. In January, 1861, he became major of his regiment, but resigned April 9th to follow the fortunes of the southern cause. He was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate army and served in Virginia. At the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, he arrived on the field late in the day, but was soon disabled by a wound. He was made major-general in 1862, and being transferred to East Tennessee, was given command of that department. Under General Braxton Bragg he led the advance in the invasion of Kentucky and defeated the Union forces at Richmond, Kentucky, August 30, 1862, and advanced to Frankfort. Promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he was engaged at the battle of Perryville, October 10, and in the battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862, and January 3, 1863. He was soon made general, the highest rank in the service, and in command of the trans-Mississippi department opposed General N. P. Banks in the famous Red River expedition, taking part in the battle of Jenkins Ferry, April 30, 1864, and other engagements of that eventful campaign. He was the last to surrender the forces under his command, which he did May 26, 1865. After the close of the war he located in Tennessee, where he died March 28, 1893. 

Letter/label or barOHN JAMES INGALLS, a famous American statesman, was born December 29, 1833, at Middleton, Massachusetts, where he was reared and received his early education. He went to Kansas in 1858 and joined the free-soil army, and a year after his arrival he was a member of the historical Wyandotte convention, which drafted a free-state constitution. In 1860 he was



made secretary of the territorial council, and in 186i was secretary of the state senate. The next year he was duly elected to the legitimate state senate from Atchison, where he had made his home. From that time he was the leader of the radical Republican element in the state. He became the editor of the "Atchison Champion" in 1863, which was a "red-hot free-soil Republican organ." In 1862 he was the anti-Lane candidate for lieutenant-governor, but was defeated. He was elected to the United States senate to succeed Senator Pomeroy, and took his seat in the forty-third congress and served until the fiftieth. In the forty-ninth congress he succeeded Senator Sherman as president pro tern., which position he held through the fiftieth congress. 

Letter/label or barENJAMIN WEST, the greatest of the early American painters, was of English descent and Quaker parentage. He was born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in 1738. From what source he inherited his genius it is hard to imagine, since the tenets and tendencies of the Quaker faith were not calculated to encourage the genius of art, but at the age of nine years, with no suggestion except that of inspiration, we find him choosing his model from life, and laboring over his first work calculated to attract public notice. It was a representation of a sleeping child in its cradle. The brush with which he painted it was made of hairs which he plucked from the cat's tail, and the colors were obtained from the war paints of friendly Indians, his mother's indigo bag, and ground chalk and charcoal, and the juice of berries, but there were touches in the rude production that he declared in later days were a credit to his best works. The picture attracted notice, for a council was called at once to pass upon the boy's conduct in thus infringing the laws of the society. There were judges among them who saw in his genius a rare gift and their wisdom prevailed, and the child was given permission to follow his inclination. He studied under a painter named Williams, and then spent some years as a portrait painter with advancing success. At the age of twenty-two he went to Italy, and not until he had perfected himself by twenty-three years of labor in that paradise of art was he satisfied to turn his face toward home. However, he stopped at London, and decided to settle there, sending to America for his intended bride to join him. Though the Revolutionary war was raging, King George III showed the American artist the highest consideration and regard. His remuneration from works for royalty amounted to five thousand dollars per year for thirty years.

      West's best known work in America is, perhaps, "The Death of General Wolf." West was one of the thirty-six original members of the Royal academy and succeeded Joshua Reynolds as president, which position he held until his death. His early works were his best, as he ceased to display originality in his later life, conventionality having seriously affected his efforts. He died in 1820. 

Letter/label or barAMUEL PORTER JONES, the famous Georgia evangelist, was born October 16, 1847, in Chambers county, Alabama. He did not attend school regularly during his boyhood, but worked on a farm, and went to school at intervals, on account of ill health. His father removed to Cartersville, Georgia, when Mr. Jones was a small boy. He quit school at the age of nineteen and never attended college. The war interfered with his education, which was intended



to prepare him for the legal profession. After the war he renewed his preparation for college, but was compelled to desist from such a course, as his health failed him entirely. Later on, however, he still pursued his legal studies and was admitted to the bar. Soon after this event he went to Dallas, Paulding county, Georgia, where he was engaged in the practice of his profession, and in a few months removed to Cherokee county, Alabama, where he taught school. In 1869 he returned to Cartersville, Georgia, and arrived in time to see his father die. Immediately after this event he applied for a license to preach, and went to Atlanta, Georgia, to the meeting of the North Georgia Conference of the M. E. church south, which received him on trial. He became an evangelist of great note, and traveled extensively, delivering his sermons in an inimitable style that made him very popular with the masses, his methods of conducting revivals being unique and original and his preaching practical and incisive. 

Letter/label or barHELBY MOORE CULLOM, a national character in political affairs and for many years United States senator from Illinois, was born November 22, 1829, at Monticello, Kentucky. He came with his parents to Illinois in 1830 and spent his early years on a farm, but having formed the purpose of devoting himself to the lawyer's profession he spent two years study at the Rock River seminary at Mount Morris, Illinois. In 1853 Mr. Cullom entered the law office of Stuart and Edwards at Springfield, Illinois, and two years later he began the independent practice of law in that city. He took an active interest in politics and was soon elected city attorney of Springfield. In 1856 he was elected a member of the Illinois house of representatives. He identified himself with the newly formed Republican party and in 1860 was re-elected to the legislature of his state, in which he was chosen speaker of the house. In 1862 President Lincoln appointed a commission to pass upon and examine the accounts of the United States quartermasters and disbursing officers, composed as follows: Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois, Charles A. Dana, of New York, and Gov. Boutwell, of Massachusetts. Mr. Cullom was nominated for congress in 1864, and was elected by a majority of 1,785. In the house of representatives he became an active and aggressive member, was chairman of the committee on territories and served in congress until 1868. Mr. Cullom was returned to the state legislature, of which he was chosen speaker in 1872, and was re-elected in 1874. In 1876 he was elected governor of Illinois and at the end of his term he was chosen for a second term. He was elected United States senator in 1883 and twice re-elected. 

Letter/label or barICHARD JORDAN GATLING, an American inventor of much note, was born in Hertford county, North Carolina, September 12, 1818. At an early age he gave promise of an inventive genius. The first emanation from his mind was the invention of a screw for the propulsion of water craft, but on application for a patent, found that he was forestalled but a short time by John Ericsson. Subsequently he invented a machine for sowing wheat in drills, which was used to a great extent throughout the west. He then studied medicine, and in 1847-8 attended lectures at the Indiana Medical College at Laporte, and in 1848-9 at the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati. He later discovered a method of transmitting power through the medium of compressed air. A



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Russell Sage, Henry George, P. T. Barnum,
C.M. Depew, Mark A. Hanna, Marshall Field,
Geo. M. Pullman, Robt. G. Ingersall, S. J. Tilden.



double-acting hemp break was also invented by him. The invention, however, by which Dr. Gatling became best known was the famous machine gun which bears his name. This he brought to light in 1861-62, and on the first trial of it, in the spring of the latter year, two hundred shots per minute were fired from it. After making some improvements which increased its efficiency, it was submitted to severe trials by our government at the arsenals at Frankfort, Washington and Fortress Monroe, and at other points. The gun was finally adopted by our government, as well as by that of Great Britain, Russia and others. 

Letter/label or barENJAMIN RYAN TILLMAN, who won a national fame in politics, was born August 11, 1847, in Edgefield county, South Carolina. He received his education in the Oldfield school, where he acquired the rudiments of Latin and Greek, in addition to a good English education. He left school in 1864 to join the Confederate army, but was prevented from doing so by a severe illness, which resulted in the loss of an eye. In 1867 he removed to Florida, but returned in 1868, when he was married and devoted himself to farming. He was chairman of the Democratic organization of his county, but except a few occasional services he took no active part in politics then. Gradually, however, his attention was directed to the depressed condition of the farming interests of his state, and in August, 1885, before a joint meeting of the agricultural society and state grange at Bennettsville, he made a speech in which he set forth the cause of agricultural depression and urged measures of relief. From his active interest in the farming class he was styled the "Agricultural Moses." He advocated an industrial school for women and for a separate agricultural college, and in 1887 he secured a modification in the final draft of the will of Thomas G. Clemson, which resulted in the erection of the Clemson Agricultural College at Fort Hill. In 1890 he was chosen governor on the Democratic ticket, and carried the election by a large majority. Governor Tillman was inaugurated December 4, 1890. Mr. Tiliman was next elected to the United States senate from South Carolina, and gained a national reputation by his fervid oratory. 

Letter/label or barEORGE DENISON PRENTICE.--No journalist of America was so celebrated in his time for the wit, spice, and vigor of his writing, as the gentleman whose name heads this sketch. From Atlantic to Pacific he was well known by his witticism as well as by strength and force of his editorials. He was a native of Preston, Connecticut, born December 18, 1802. After laying the foundation of a liberal education in his youth, he entered Brown University, from which he was graduated in 1823. Taking up the study of law, he was admitted to the bar in 1829. During part of his time he was editor of the "New England Weekly Review," a position which he relinquished to go south and was succeeded by John Greenleaf Whittier, the Quaker poet.

      On arriving in Louisville, whither he had gone to gather items for his history of Henry Clay, Mr. Prentice became identified with the "Louisville journal," which, under his hands, became one of the leading Whig newspapers of the country. At the head of this he remained until the day of his death. This latter event occurred January 22, 1870, and he was succeeded in the control of the "Journal" by Colonel Henry Watterson.

     Mr. Prentice was an author of considerable celebrity, chief among his works being



"The Life of Henry Clay," and "Prenticeana," a collection of wit and humor, that passed through several large editions. 

Letter/label or barAM. HOUSTON, in the opinion of some critics one of the most remarkable men who ever figured in American history, was a native of Rockbridge county, Virginia, born March 2, 1793. Early in life he was left in destitute circumstances by the death of his father, and, with his mother, removed to Tennessee, then almost a boundless wilderness. He received but little education, spending the most of his time among the Cherokee Indians. Part of the time of his residence there Houston acted as clerk for a trader and also taught one of the primitive schools of the day. In 1813 he enlisted as private in the United States army and was engaged under General Jackson in the war with the Creek Indians. When peace was made Houston was a lieutenant, but he resigned his commission and commenced the study of law at Nashville. After holding some minor offices he was elected member of congress from Tennessee. This was in 1823. He retained this office until 1827, when he was chosen governor of the state. In 1829, resigning that office before the expiration of his term, Sam Houston removed to Arkansas, and made his home among the Cherokees, becoming the agent of that tribe and representing their interests at Washington. On a visit to Texas, just prior to the election of delegates to a convention called for the purpose of drawing up a constitution previous to the admission of the state into the Mexican union, he was unanimously chosen a delegate. The convention framed the constitution, but, it being rejected by the government of Mexico, and the petition for admission to the Confederacy denied and the Texans told by the president of the Mexican union to give up their arms, bred trouble. It was determined to resist this demand. A military force was soon organized, with General Houston at the head of it. War was prosecuted with great vigor, and with varying success, but at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836, the Mexicans were defeated and their leader and president, Santa Anna, captured. Texas was then proclaimed an independent republic, and in October of the same year Houston was inaugurated president. On the admission of Texas to the Federal Union, in 1845, Houston was elected senator, and held that position for twelve years. Opposing the idea of secession, he retired from political life in 1861, and died at Huntsville, Texas, July 25, 1863. 

Letter/label or barLI WHITNEY, the inventor of the cotton-gin, was born in Westborough, Massachusetts, December 8, 1765. After his graduation from Yale College, he went to Georgia, where he studied law, and lived with the family of the widow of General Nathaniel Greene. At that time the only way known to separate the cotton seed from the fiber was by hand, making it extremely slow and expensive, and for this reason cotton was little cultivated in this country. Mrs. Greene urged the inventive Whitney to devise some means for accomplishing this work by machinery. This he finally succeeded in doing, but he was harassed by attempts to defraud him by those who had stolen his ideas. He at last formed a partnership with a man named Miller, and they began the manufacture of the machines at Washington, Georgia, in 1795. The success of his invention was immediate, and the legislature of South Carolina voted the sum of $50,000 for his idea. This sum he had great difficulty in collecting, after years of

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