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remains were brought to the United States and interred in his native town. He made several other bequests in his will, and left his family about five million dollars. 

Letter/label or barATTHEW S. QUAY, a celebrated public man and senator, was born at Dillsburgh, York county, Pennsylvania, September 30, 1833, of an old Scotch-Irish family, some of whom had settled in the Keystone state in 1715. Matthew received a good education, graduating from the Jefferson College at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, at the age of seventeen. He then traveled, taught school, lectured, and studied law under Judge Sterrett. He was admitted to the bar in 1854, was appointed a prothonotary in 1855 and elected to the same office in 1850 and 1859. Later he was made lieutenant of the Pennsylvania Reserves, lieutenant-colonel and assistant commissary-general of the state, private secretary of the famous war governor of Pennsylvania, Andrew G. Curtin, colonel of the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Pennsylvania Infantry (nine months men), military state agent and held other offices at different times.

      Mr. Quay was a member of the house of representatives of the state of Pennsylvania from 1865 to 1868. He filled the office of secretary of the commonwealth from 1872 to 1878, and the position of delegate-at-large to the Republican national conventions of 1872, 1876, 1880 and 1888. He was the editor of the "Beaver Radical" and the "Philadelphia Record" for a time, and held many offices in the state conventions and on their committees. He was elected secretary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1869, and served three years, and in 1885 was chosen state treasurer. In 1886 his great abilities pointed him out as the natural candidate for United States senator, and he was accordingly elected to that position and re-elected thereto in 1892. He was always noted for a genius for organization, and as a political leader had but few peers. Cool, serene, far-seeing, resourceful, holding his impulses and forces in hand, he never quailed from any policy he adopted, and carried to success most, if not all, of the political campaigns in which he took part. 

Letter/label or barAMES K. JONES, a noted senator and political leader, attained national fame while chairman of the national executive committee of the Democratic party in the presidential campaign of 1896. He was a native of Marshall county, Mississippi, and was born September 29, 1839. His father, a well-to-do planter, settled in Dallas county, Arkansas, in 1848, and there the subject of this sketch received a careful education. During the Civil war he served as a private soldier in the Confederate army. From 1866 to 1873 he passed a quiet life as a planter, but in the latter year was admitted to the bar and began the practice of law. About the same time he was elected to the Arkansas senate and re-elected in 1874. In 1877 he was made president of the senate and the following year was unsuccessful in obtaining a nomination as member of congress. In 1880 he was elected representative and his ability at once placed him in a foremost position. He was re-elected to congress in 1882 and in 1884, and served as an influential member on the committee of ways and means. March 4, 1885, Mr. Jones took his seat in the United States senate to succeed James D. Walker, and was afterward re-elected to the same office. In this branch of the national legislature his capabilities had a wider scope, and he was rec-



ognized as one of the ablest leaders of his party.

      On the nomination of William J. Bryan as its candidate for the presidency by the national convention of the Democratic party, held in Chicago in 1896, Mr. Jones was made chairman of the national committee. 

Letter/label or barHEODORE THOMAS, one of the most celebrated musical directors America has known, was born in the kingdom of Hanover in 1835, and received his musical education from his father. He was a very apt scholar and played the violin at public concerts at the age of six years. He came with his parents to America in 1845, and joined the orchestra of the Italian Opera in New York City. He played the first violin in the orchestra which accompanied Jenny Lind in her first American concert. In 1861 Mr. Thomas established the orchestra that became famous under his management, and gave his first symphony concerts in New York in 1864. He began his first "summer night concerts" in the same city in 1868, and in 1869 he started on his first tour of the principal cities in the United States, which he made every year for many years. He was director of the College of Music in Cincinnati, Ohio, but resigned in 1880, after having held the position for three years.

      Later he organized one of the greatest and most successful orchestras ever brought together in the city of Chicago, and was very prominent in musical affairs during the World's Columbian Exposition, thereby adding greatly to his fame. 

Letter/label or barYRUS HALL McCORMICK, the famous inventor and manufacturer, was born at Walnut Grove, Virginia, February 15,1809. When he was seven years old his father invented a reaping machine. It was a rude contrivance and not successful. In 1831 Cyrus made his invention of a reaping machine, and had it patented three years later. By successive improvements he was able to keep his machines at the head of its class during his life. In 1845 he removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and two years later located in Chicago, where he amassed a great fortune in manufacturing reapers and harvesting machinery. In 1859 he established the Theological Seminary of the Northwest at Chicago, an institution for preparing young men for the ministry in the Presbyterian church, and he afterward endowed a chair in the Washington and Lee College at Lexington, Virginia. He manifested great interest in educational and religious matters, and by his great wealth he was able to extend aid and encouragement to many charitable causes. His death occurred May 13, 1884. 

Letter/label or barAVID ROSS LOCKE.--Under the pen name of Petroleum V. Nasby, this well-known humorist and writer made for himself a household reputation, and established a school that has many imitators.

      The subject of this article was born at Vestal, Broome county, New York, September 30, 1833. After receiving his education in the county of his birth he entered the office of the '' Democrat," at Cortland, New York, where he learned the printer's trade. He was successively editor and publisher of the ''Plymouth Advertiser," the ''Mansfield Herald," the "Bucyrus Journal," and the "Findlay Jeffersonian." Later he became editor of the "Toledo Blade." In 1860 he commenced his "Nasby" articles, several series of which have been given the world in book form. Under a mask of misspelling, and in a quaint



and humorous style, a keen political satire is couched--a most effective weapon. Mr. Locke was the author of a number of serious political pamphlets, and later on a more pretentious work, " The Morals of Abou Ben Adhem." As a newspaper writer he gained many laurels and his works are widely read. Abraham Lincoln is said to have been a warm admirer of P. V. Nasby, of "Confedrit X Roads" fame. Mr. Locke died at Toledo, Ohio, February 15, 1888. 

Letter/label or barUSSELL A. ALGER, noted as a soldier, governor and secretary of war, was born in Medina county, Ohio, February 27, 1836, and was the son of Russell and Caroline (Moulton) Alger. At the age of twelve years he was left an orphan and penniless. For about a year he worked for his board and clothing, and attended school part of the time. In 1850 he found a place which paid small wages, and out of his scanty earnings helped his brother and sister. While there working on a farm he found time to attend the Richfield Academy, and by hard work between times managed to get a fair education for that time. The last two years of his attendance at this institution of learning he taught school during the winter months. In 1857 he commenced the study of law, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. For a while he found employment in Cleveland, Ohio, but impaired health induced him to remove to Grand Rapids, where he engaged in the lumber business. He was thus engaged when the Civil war broke out, and, his business suffering and his savings swept away, he enlisted as a private in the Second Michigan Cavalry. He was promoted to be captain the following month, and major for gallant conduct at Boonesville, Mississippi, July 1, 1862. October 16, 1862, he was made lieutenant-colonel of the Sixth Michigan Cavalry, and in February, 1863, colonel of the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. He rendered excellent service in the Gettysburg campaign. He was wounded at Boonesboro, Maryland, and on returning to his command took part with Sherman in the campaign in the Shenandoah Valley. For services rendered, that famous soldier recommended him for promotion, and he was brevetted major-general of volunteers. In 1866 General Alger took up his residence at Detroit, and prospered exceedingly in his business, which was that of lumbering, and grew quite wealthy. In 1884 he was a delegate to the Republican national convention, and the same year was elected governor of Michigan. He declined a nomination for re-election to the latter office, in 1887, and was the following year a candidate for the nomination for president. In 1889 he was elected commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, and at different times occupied many offices in other organizations.

      In March, 1897, President McKinley appointed General Alger secretary of war. 

Letter/label or barYRUS WEST FIELD, the father of submarine telegraphy, was the son of the Rev. David D. Field, D.D., a Congregational minister, and was born at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 1819. He was educated in his native town, and at the age of fifteen years became a clerk in a store in New York City. Being gifted with excellent business ability Mr. Field prospered and became the head of a large mercantile house. In 1853 he spent about six months in travel in South America. On his return he became interested in ocean telegraphy. Being solicited to aid in the con-



struction of a land telegraph across New Foundland to receive the news from a line of fast steamers it was proposed to run from from Ireland to St. Johns, the idea struck him to carry the line across the broad Atlantic. In 1850 Mr. Field obtained a concession from the legislature of Newfoundland, giving him the sole right for fifty years to land submarine cables on the shores of that island. In company with Peter Cooper, Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts and Chandler White, he organized a company under the name of the New York, Newfoundland & London Telegraph Company. In two years the line from New York across Newfoundland was built. The first cable connecting Cape Breton Island with Newfoundland having been lost in a storm while being laid in 1855, another was put down in 1856. In the latter year Mr. Field went to London and organized the Atlantic Telegraph Company, furnishing one-fourth of the capital himself. Both governments loaned ships to carry out the enterprise. Mr. Field accompanied the expeditions of 1857 and two in 1858. The first and second cables were failures, and the third worked but a short time and then ceased. The people of both continents became incredulous of the feasibility of laying a successful cable under so wide an expanse of sea, and the war breaking out shortly after, nothing was done until 1865-66. Mr. Field, in the former year, again made the attempt, and the Great Eastern laid some one thousand two hundred miles when the cable parted and was lost. The following year the same vessel succeeded in laying the entire cable, and picked up the one lost the year before, and both were carried to America's shore. After thirteen years of care and toil Mr. Field had his reward. He was the recipient of many medals and honors from both home and abroad. He gave his attention alter this to establishing telegraphic communication throughout the world and many other large enterprises, notably the construction of elevated railroads in New York. Mr. Field died July 11, 1892. 

Letter/label or barROVER CLEVELAND, the twenty-second president of the United States, was born in Caldwell, Essex county, New Jersey, March 18, 1837. and was the son of Rev. Richard and Annie (Neale) Cleveland. The father, of distinguished New England ancestry, was a Presbyterian minister in charge of the church at Caidwell at the time.

      When Grover was about three years of age the family removed to Fayetteville, Onondaga county, New York, where he attended the district school, and was in the academy for a short time. His father believing that boys should early learn to labor, Grover entered a village store and worked for the sum of fifty dollars for the first year. While he was thus engaged the family removed to Clinton, New York, and there young Cleveland took up his studies at the academy. The death of his father dashed all his hopes of a collegiate education, the family being left in straightened circumstances, and Grover started out to battle for himself. After acting for a year (1853-54) as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in the Institution for the Blind at New York City, he went to Buffalo. A short time after he entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen & Rogers, of that city, and after a hard struggle with adverse circumstances, was admitted to the bar in 1859. He became confidential and managing clerk for the firm under whom he had studied, and remained with them until 1863. In the latter year he was appointed district attorney



of Erie county. It was during his incumbency of this office that, on being nominated by the Democrats for supervisor, he came within thirteen votes of election, although the district was usually Republican by two hundred and fifty majority. In 1866 Grover Cleveland formed a partnership with Isaac V. Vanderpoel. The most of the work here fell upon the shoulders of our subject, and he soon won a good standing at the bar of the state. In 1869 Mr. Cleveland associated himself in business with A. P. Laning and Oscar Folsom, and under the firm name of Laning, Cleveland & Folsom soon built up a fair practice. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Cleveland was elected sheriff of Erie county, an office which he filled for four years, after which he resumed his profession, with L. K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell as partners. This firm was strong and popular and shortly was in possession of a lucrative practice. Mr. Bass retired from the firm in 1879, and George J. Secard was admitted a member in 1881. In the latter year Mr. Cleveland was elected mayor of Buffalo, and in 1882 he was chosen governor by the enormous majority of one hundred and ninety-two thousand votes. July 11, 1884, he was nominated for the presidency by the Democratic national convention, and in November following was elected.

      Mr. Cleveland, after serving one term as president of the United States, in 1888 was nominated by his party to succeed himself, but he failed of the election, being beaten by Benjamin Harrison. In 1892, however, being nominated again in opposition to the then incumbent of the presidency, Mr. Harrison, Grover Cleveland was elected president for the second time and served for the usual term of four years. In 1897 Mr. Cleveland retired from the chair of the first magistrate of the nation, and in New York City resumed the practice of law, in which city he had established himself in 1889.

      June 2, 1886, Grover Cleveland was united in marriage with Miss Frances Folsom, the daughter of his former partner. 

Letter/label or barLEXANDER WINCHELL, for many years one of the greatest of American scientists, and one of the most noted and prolific writers on scientific subjects, was born in Duchess county, New York, December 31, 1824. He received a thorough collegiate education, and graduated at the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, 1n 1847. His mind took a scientific turn, which manifested itself while he was yet a boy, and in 1848 he became teacher of natural sciences at the Armenian Seminary, in his native state, a position which he filled for three years. In 1851-3 he occupied the same position in the Mesopotamia Female Seminary, in Alabama, after which he was president of the Masonic Female Seminary, in Alabama. In 1853 he became connected with the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, at which institution he performed the most important work of his life, and gained a wide reputation as a scientist. He held many important positions, among which were the following: Professor of physics and civil engineering at the University of Michigan, also of geology, zoology and botany, and later professor of geology and palæontology at the same institution. He also, for a time, was president of the Michigan Teachers' Association, and state geologist of Michigan. Professor Winchell was a very prolific writer on scientific subjects, and published many standard works, his most important and widely known being those devoted to geology. He also contributed a large number of articles to scientific and popular journals.



Letter/label or barNDREW HULL FOOTE, of the United States navy, was a native of New England, born at New Haven, Connecticut, May 4, 1808. He entered the navy, as a midshipman, December 4, 1822. He slowly rose in his chosen profession, attaining the rank of lieutenant in 1830, commander in 1852 and captain in 1861. Among the distinguished men in the breaking out of the Civil war, but few stood higher in the estimation of his brother officers than Foote, and when, in the fall of 1861, he was appointed to the command of the flotilla then building on the Mississippi, the act gave great satisfaction to the service. Although embarrassed by want of navy yards and supplies, Foote threw himself into his new work with unusual energy. He overcame all obstacles and in the new, and, until that time, untried experiment, of creating and maintaining a navy on a river, achieved a success beyond the expectations of the country. Great incredulity existed as to the possibility of carrying on hostilities on a river where batteries from the shore might bar the passage. But in spite of all, Foote soon had a navy on the great river, and by the heroic qualities of the crews entrusted to him, demonstrated the utility of this new departure in naval architecture. All being prepared, February 6, 1862, Foote took Fort Henry after a hotly-contested action. On the 14th of the same month, for an hour and a half engaged the batteries of Fort Donelson, with four ironclads and two wooden gunboats, thereby disheartening the garrison and assisting in its capture. April 7th of the same year, after several hotly-contested actions, Commodore Foote received the surrender of Island No. 10, one of the great strongholds of the Confederacy on the Mississippi river. Foote having been wounded at Fort Donelson, and by neglect it having become so serious as to endanger his life, he was forced to resign his command and return home. June 16, 1862, he received the thanks of congress and was promoted to the rank of rear admiral. He was appointed chief of the bureau of equipment and recruiting. June 4, 1863, he was ordered to the fleet off Charleston, to supercede Rear Admiral Dupont, but on his way to that destination was taken sick at New York, and died June 26, 1863. 

Letter/label or barELSON A. MILES, the well-known soldier, was born at Westminster, Massachusetts, August 8, 1839. His ancestors settled in that state in 1643 among the early pioneers, and their descendants were, many of them, to be found among those battling against Great Britain during Revolutionary times and during the war of 1812. Nelson was reared on a farm, received an academic education, and in early manhood engaged in mercantile pursuits in Boston. Early in 1861 he raised a company and offered his services to the government, and although commissioned as captain, on account of his youth went out as first lieutenant in the Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry. In 1862 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel and colonel of the Sixty-first New York Infantry. At the request of Generals Grant and Meade he was made a brigadier by President Lincoln. He participated in all but one of the battles of the Army of the Potomac until the close of the war. During the latter part of the time he commanded the first division of the Second Corps. General Miles was wounded at the battles of Fair Oaks, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and received four brevets for distinguished service. During the reconstruction period he commanded in North Carolina, and on the reorganization of the



regular army he was made colonel of infantry. In 1880 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and in 1890 to that of major-general. He successfully conducted several campaigns among the Indians, and his name is known among the tribes as a friend when they are peacefully inclined. He many times averted war with the red men by judicious and humane settlement of difficulties without the military power. In 1892 General Miles was given command of the proceedings in dedicating the World's Fair at Chicago, and in the summer of 1894, during the great railroad strike at the same city, General Miles, then in command of the department, had the disposal of the troops sent to protect the United States mails. On the retirement of General J. M. Schofield, in 1895, General Miles became the ranking major-general of the United States army and the head of its forces. 

Letter/label or barUNIUS BRUTUS BOOTH. the great actor, though born in London (1796), is more intimately connected with the American than with the English stage, and his popularity in America was almost unbounded, while in England he was not a prime favorite. He presented "Richard III." in Richmond on his first appearance on the American stage in 1821. This was his greatest role, and in it he has never had an equal. In October of the same year he appeared in New York. After a long and successful career he gave his final performance at New Orleans in 1852. He contracted a severe cold, and for lack of proper medical attention, it resulted in his death on November 30th of that year. He was, without question, one of the greatest tragedians that ever lived. In addition to his professional art and genius, he was skilled in languages, drawing, painting and sculpture. In his private life he was reserved, and even eccentric. Strange stories are related of his peculiarities, and on his farm near Baltimore he forbade the use of animal food, the taking of animal life, and even the felling of trees, and brought his butter and eggs to the Baltimore markets in person.

      Junius Brutus Booth, known as the elder Booth, gave to the world three sons of note: Junius Brutus Booth, Jr., the husband of Agnes Booth, the actress; John Wilkes Booth, the author of the greatest tragedy in the life of our nation; Edwin Booth, in his day the greatest actor of America, if not of the world. 

Letter/label or barAMES MONTGOMERY BAILEY, famous as the ''Danbury News Man," was one of the best known American humorists, and was born September 25, 1841, at Albany, N. Y. He adopted journalism as a profession and started in his chosen work on the ''Danbury Times," which paper he purchased on his return from the war. Mr. Bailey also purchased the ''Jeffersonian," another paper of Danbury, and consolidated them, forming the ''Danbury News," which paper soon acquired a celebrity throughout. the United States, from an incessant flow of rich, healthy, and original humor, which the pen of the editor imparted to its columns, and he succeeded in raising the circulation of the paper from a few hundred copies a. week to over forty thousand. The facilities of a country printing office were not so complete in those days as they are now, but Mr. Bailey was resourceful, and he put on relays of help and ran his presses night and day, and always prepared his matter a week ahead of time. The "Danbury News Man" was a new figure in literature, as his humor was so different from that of the newspaper




wits who had preceded him, and he maybe called the pioneer of that school now so familiar. Mr. Bailey published in book form "Life in Danbury" and "The Danbury New Man's Almanac." One of his most admirable traits was philanthrophy, as he gave with unstinted generosity to all corners, and died comparatively poor, notwithstanding his ownership of a very profitable business which netted him an income of $40,000 a year. He died March 4, 1894. 

Letter/label or barATTHEW HALE CARPENTER, a famous lawyer, orator and senator, was born in Moretown, Vermont, December 22, 1824. After receiving a common-school education he entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, but only remained two years. On returning to his home he commenced the study of law with Paul Dillingham, afterwards governor of Vermont, and whose daughter he married. In 1847 he was admitted to practice at the bar in Vermont, but he went to Boston and for a time studied with Rufus Choate. In 1848 he moved west, settling at Beloit, Wisconsin, and commencing the practice of his profession soon obtained a wide reputation for ability. In 1856 Mr. Carpenter removed to Milwaukee, where he found a wider field for his now increasing powers. During the Civil war, although a strong Democrat, he was loyal to the government and aided the Union cause to his utmost. In 1868 he was counsel for the government in a test case to settle the legality of the reconstruction act before the United States supreme court, and won his case against Jeremiah S. Black. This gave him the election for senator from Wisconsin in 1869, and he served until 1875, during part of which time he was president pro tempore of the senate. Failing of a re-election Mr. Carpenter resumed the practice of law, and when William W. Belknap, late secretary of war, was impeached, entered the case for General Belknap, and secured an acquittal. During the sitting of the electoral commission of 1877, Mr. Carpenter appeared for Samuel J. Tilden, although the Republican managers had intended to have him represent R. B. Hayes. Mr. Carpenter was elected to the United States senate again in 1879, and remained a member of that body until the day of his death, which occurred at Washington, District of Columbia, February 24, 1881.

      Senator Carpenter's real name was Decatur Merritt Hammond Carpenter but about 1852 he changed it to the one by which he was universally known. 

Letter/label or barHOMAS E. WATSON, lawyer and congressman, the well-known Georgian, whose name appears at the head of this sketch, made himself a place in the history of our country by his ability, energy and fervid oratory. He was born in Columbia (now McDuffie) county, Georgia, September 5, 1856. He had a common-school education, and in 1872 entered Mercer University, at Macon, Georgia, as freshman, but for want of money left the college at the end of his sophomore year. He taught school, studying law at the same time, until 1875, when he was admitted to the bar. He opened an office and commenced practice in Thomson, Georgia, in November, 1876. He carried on a successful business, and bought land and farmed on an extensive scale.

      Mr. Watson was a delegate to the Democratic state convention of 1880, and was a member of the house of representatives of the legislature of his native state in 1882. In 1888 he was an elector-at-large on the



Cleveland ticket, and in 1890 was elected to represent his district in the fifty-second congress. This latter election is said to have been due entirely to Mr. Watson's "dashing display of ability, eloquence and popular power." In his later years he championed the alliance principles and policies until he became a leader in the movement. In the heated campaign of 1896, Mr. Watson was nominated as the candidate for vice-president on the Bryan ticket by that part of the People's party that would not endorse the nominee for the same position made by the Democratic party. 

Letter/label or barREDERICK A. P. BARNARD, mathematician, physicist and educator, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, May 5, 1809. He graduated from Yale College in 1828, and in 1830 became a tutor in the same. From 1837 to 1848 he was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in the University of Alabama, and from 1848 to 1850, professor of chemistry and natural history in the same educational institution. In 1854 he became connected with the University of Mississippi, of which he became president in 1856, and chancellor in 1858. In 1854 he took orders in the Protestant Episcopal church. In 1861 Professor Barnard resigned his chancellorship and chair in the university, and in 1863 and 1864 was connected with the United States coast survey in charge of chart printing and lithography. In May, 1864, he was elected president of Columbia College, New York City, which he served for a number of years.

      Professor Barnard received the honorary degree of LL. D. from Jefferson College, Mississippi, in 1855, and from Yale College in 1859; also the degree of S. T. D. from the University of Mississippi in 1861, and that of L. H. D. from the regents of the University of the State of New York in 1872. In 1860 he was a member of the eclipse party sent by the United States coast survey to Labrador, and during his absence was elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In the act of congress establishing the National Academy of Sciences in 1863, he was named as one of the original corporators. In 1867 he was one of the United States commissioners to the Paris Exposition. He was a member of the American Philosophical Society, associate member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and many other philosophical and scientific societies at home and abroad. Dr. Barnard was thoroughly identified with the progress of the age in those branches. His published works relate wholly to scientific or educational subjects, chief among which are the following: Report on Collegiate Education; Art Culture; History of the American Coast Survey; University Education; Undulatory Theory of Light; Machinery and Processes of the Industrial Arts, and Apparatus of the Exact Sciences, Metric System of Weights and Measures, etc. 

Letter/label or barDWIN McMASTERS STANTON, the secretary of war during the great Civil war, was recognized as one of America's foremost public men. He was born December 19, 1814, at Steubenville, Ohio, where he received his education and studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1836, and was reporter of the supreme court of Ohio from 1842 until 1845. He removed to Washington in 1856 to attend to his practice before the United States supreme court, and in 1858 he went to California as counsel for the government in certain land cases, which he carried to a successful conclusion. Mr. Stanton was appointed



attorney-general of the United States in December, 1860, by President Buchanan. On March 4, 1861, Mr. Stanton went with the outgoing administration and returned to the practice of his profession. He was appointed secretary of war by President Lincoln January 20, 1862, to succeed Simon Cameron. After the assassination of President Lincoln and the accession of Johnson to the presidency, Mr. Stanton was still in the same office. He held it for three years, and by his strict adherence to the Republican party, he antagonized President Johnson, who endeavored to remove him. On August 5, 1867, the president requested him to resign, and appointed General Grant to succeed him, but when congress convened in December the senate refused to concur in the suspension. Mr. Stanton returned to his post until the president again removed him from office, but was again foiled by congress. Soon after, however, he retired voluntarily from office and took up the practice of law, in which he engaged until his death, on December 24, 1869. 

Letter/label or barLEXANDER CAMPBELL, the eminent theologian and founder of the church known as Disciples of Christ, was born in the country of Antrim, Ireland, in June, 1788, and was the son of Rev. Thomas Campbell, a Scoth-Irish (sic) "Seceder." After studying at the University of Glasgow, he, in company with his father, came to America in 1808, and both began labor in western Pennsylvania to restore Christianity to apostolic simplicity. They organized a church at Brush Run, Washington county, Pennsylvania, in 1811 which, however, the year following, adopted Baptist views, and in 1813, with other congregations joined a Baptist association. Some of the underlying principles and many practices of the Campbells and their disciples were repugnant to the Baptist church and considerable friction was the result, and 1827 saw the separation of that church from the Church of Christ, as it is sometimes called. The latter then reorganized themselves anew. They reject all creeds, professing to receive the Bible as their only guide. In most matters of faith they are essentially in accord with the other Evangelical Christian churches, especially in regard to the person and work of Christ, the resurrection and judgment. They celebrate the Lord's Supper weekly, hold that repentance and faith should precede baptism, attaching much importance to the latter ordinance. On all other points they encourage individual liberty of thought. In 1841, Alexander Campbell founded Bethany College, West Virginia, of which he was president for many years, and died March 4, 1866.

     The denomination which they founded is quite a large and important church body in the United States. They support quite a number of institutions of learning, among which are: Bethany College, West Virginia; Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio; Northwestern Christian University, Indianapolis, Indiana; Eureka College, Illinois; Kentucky University. Lexington, Kentucky; Oskaloosa College, Iowa; and a number of seminaries and schools. They also support several monthly and quarterly religious periodicals and many papers, both in the United States and Great Britain and her dependencies. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM L. WILSON, the noted West Virginian, who was postmaster-general under President Cleveland's second administration, won distinction as the father of the famous " Wilson bill," which became a law under the same administration. Mr. Wilson was born May 3, 1843, in Jeffer-

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