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Augusta Bellgrin. She was a native of Germany, where she was born in 1853 but has lived in this country since her childhood. They lived on the homestead farm until 1890, when they removed to their present home on section 28 of the same township. Mr. Wellman has erected a handsome residence, and is making many other improvements in barns and out-buildings, which will, when fully completed, put this farm among the list of the best in the county. On the old place he has good buildings, fences, orchards, vineyards, and altogether he has about three hundred and fifty acres under an intensified cultivation. In all he owns over five hundred acres, with an ample equipment of live stock and machinery. He is exclusivly (sic) a farmer and stock raiser, and aims to carry on what might be called a system of general farming as opposed to specializing methods that would tie a man up to one line. He shows a line herd of Durham cattle, and has good stock about him.

      Mr. and Mrs. Wellman are the parents of seven boys and one girl: Arthur, Reinhart, Laura, Arnold, George, Robert, Henry and Walter. They are members of the German Lutheran church, where he has been a trustee for many years. He is a Democrat, and takes a lively interest in the fortunes of the party. He has been supervisor of the 4th district since 1894, and was for two years chairman of the committee on roads and bridges. He is anxious that the neighborhood in which he lives should have a good school, and is willing to give time and attention to the school which his children attend. He has been a member of the school board of the sixth district for eighteen years and much of the excellence of that well known country school is due to his careful supervision.

      He assisted in the organization of the York county German Mutual Fire Insurance company in 1892. He was elected its first president and has served as such ever since,. and also on the board of directors.

      A portrait of this worthy citizen is presented on another page of this volume. 

Letter/label or barOBERT J. EVANS, deceased.--In the death of the late R. J. Evans, of Franklin township, Butler county lost a worthy citizen and an excellent farmer. The estate upon which he lived for several years consists of one hundred and sixty acres, and bears a full line of improvements, including every convenient arrangement in the way of buildings and the adornments with which people of good taste surround themselves. The land was carefully and thoroughly tilled, made to produce abundantly, and in the quality of the crops raised compared favorably with others in the township.

      Mr. Evans was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, August 5, 1836, and was there reared and educated in the public schools. In 1861, he enlisted in Company F, First Pennsylvania Cavalry, served three years, and was in many of the principal battles. After leaving the army, he returned to Greene county, Pennsylvania, and turned his attention to the oil business. In 1866 he was married, in Pennsylvania, and soon after moved to Iowa and located in Washington county, on a farm. Here he remained until 1883, and then moved to Butler county, Nebraska, and settled on a farm in section 28, Franklin township,. where Mrs. Evans now lives. This he made his home until his death, which occurred August 13, 1890. He was a member of the Baptist church, a man who enjoyed the respect and esteem of all and was well-known throughout the county. In politics he was a Republican.

      Mr. Evans' widow, Mrs. Eunice A. (Minor) Evans, was also born in Greene county, Pennsylania (sic), August 1, 1844. Her father, Otho Minor, was born in Greene



county, Pennsylvania, and was a farmer by occupation. He died in his native county at the age of forty-one years. His father, Noah Minor, was supposed to be of English descent. Mrs. Evans' mother, Pleasant Myers, was also a native of Greene county, Pennsylvania, and died at the age of thirty-five years, leaving a family of seven children, of whom Mrs. Evans was the fifth in the order of birth. She was but three years of age when her mother died, and was reared by her uncle and aunt in her native county. She was married to Mr. Evans in 1866, and their wedded life was blessed by the advent of a family of five children, as follows: Jesse R., is living at home; William M., is a clerk at David City, Nebraska; Pleasant J., a teacher in Butler county; Mary L., a teacher in the David City school; and Merlie M., at home. Mrs. Evans has a farm of one hundred and sixty acres, and with the assistance of her son is carrying on a successful general farming business. 

Letter/label or barILLIAM C. FORSTER, the well-known manager of one of the leading general mercantile houses of Staplehurst, Seward county, was born in Bremen, Germany. January 11, 1875, a son of Henry and Betha Forster, also natives of Bremen. The father was a soldier in the German army during the Franco-Prussian war. He was a carpenter by trade, and followed that occupation in his native land until his death, which occurred in 1883. His wife only survived him about four years, dying in 1887.

      The subject of this sketch was reared and educated in Germany, attending the Dome school, which corresponds to the high schools of this country, and from that institution he graduated. On leaving school he came direct to the United States, and proceeded at once to Seward county, Nebraska, where he had an uncle living, who was in the employ of H. Diers, of Seward. Mr. Forster also found employment with that gentleman, as clerk in a branch store at Staplehurst, and remained with him until May, 1890, when he changed to the store of H. H. Weller, being with him for one year. He then entered the employ of Fritz Meyer, in a general store, and had charge of the books, etc., for one year, leaving in July, 1892, when he returned to Mr. Diers. On the 1st of March, 1893, he was given full control of the business, though only eighteen yeass (sic) of age, and has continued as general manager of the store up to the present time. Being a courteous, genial gentleman, he easily wins friends, and also the patronage of the community, and is a business man of more than ordinary ability. Although he came to the new world without means, working to pay his passage after his arrival, he has already succeeded in accumulating some property, being the owner of two business buildings and a pleasant home in Staplehurst.

      On the 23d of January, 1895, Mr. Forster was united in marriage with Miss Emilie Schultze, a daughter of Henry Schultze, of Staplehurst. They attend the German Lutheran church and occupy an enviable position in social circles. In his political affiliations Mr. Forster is a Democrat, but has never sought or cared for official preferment. 

Letter/label or barAMES M. HILL.--Among the men who have been instrumental in the development of the rich resources of Fillmore county, the subject of this sketch holds no unimportant position. Since 1871 he had been a resident of the county, and has been prominently identified with its agricultural interests, carrying on operations as a general farmer on the northeast quarter of section 34, Fairmont township.

      Mr. Hill is a native of Ohio, born in



Highland county, February 10, 1843, and is a son of Joseph H. and Ellen B. (Lloyd) Hill. The birth of the father occurred in Carroll county, Virginia, in 1814, and there he continued to reside until 1831, when he removed to Kentucky, and later to Highland county, Ohio, where he followed his trade, that of a blacksmith, until 1847. He then went to Jasper county, Iowa, where he also worked at his trade in connection with farming until called from this life in 1889. He was the father of nine children, six sons and three daughters, of whom three sons served in the Union army during the war of the Rebellion, these being William F., John H. and James M. The wife and mother passed away in 1896.

      James M. Hill was but a child when the family removed to Iowa, and he was there reared amid pioneer scenes. He well remembers when the white settlers were compelled to flee to the blockhouses to escape from the treacherous Indians, and he assisted, when yet a lad, in repelling those raids. He was denied the advantages of a good education, and was only permitted to attend school but a few months in his life. His education has all been acquired since reaching manhood by reading and observation, and he is to-day a well-informed man. In response to President Lincoln's call for volunteers, he offered his services to the country to assist in putting down the Rebellion, and became a member of Company G, Twenty-Third Iowa Volunteer Infantry, which was assigned to the western army. He was engaged in many skirmishes with with (sic) Price and Marmaduke, but after one year of arduous service was discharged for disabilities and returned home. He was twice hit by spent balls, but fortunately was never seriously wounded.

      Mr. Hill continued to reside in Jasper county, Iowa, until 1871, when he came to Fillmore county, Nebraska, and took up the homestead where he yet lives, it being at that time all wild and unimproved. His first home here was a small frame residence, 14x20 feet, the lumber for which he paid sixty dollars per thousand. This served as the family dwelling until 1887, when he erected his present fine house. The farm is now under a high state of cultivation, and is one of the best-improved places of the county. The family endured all of the privations of frontier life, their crops were destroyed by drouth and grasshoppers, but as the years have passed they have steadily prospered, notwithstanding these misfortunes, and are to-day quite well to do.

      In 1869, Mr. Hill was united in marriage with Miss Lydia A. Barber, a native of Mercer county, Pennsylvania, and a daughter of John S. Barber, who was born in the same state. The children of this union are as follows: Joseph F.; James A.; Frances B., now the wife of E. Houchin; Nora S.; Eulalie N.; and Jessie I. Mr. and Mrs. Hill are consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal church, to the support of which they give liberally and cheerfully. In his social relations he is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Modern Woodmen of America, and in politics has always been a steadfast Republican, having assisted in organizing the party in Fillmore county. As a man and citizen he contributes his full share towards enhancing the intellectual and moral welfare of the community in which he has so long made his home, and where he is so widely and favorably known. 

Letter/label or barIRKMAN TUTTY is a skillful and energetic farmer, who is engaged in his chosen calling on section 27, Fairmont township, Fillmore county, Nebraska, and has prospered in his labors. He is a man of excellent business ability, and his habits of thought and observation have tended to provide him with a good fund of general in-



formation, which has proved valuable in every respect.

      England is his native land, his birth occurring in Lincolnshire, February 14, 1847. His parents, Daniel and Rebecca (Blackburn) Tutty, were natives of the same shire and they spent their entire lives in England. The father, who made farming his principal occupation, died June 30, 1880, at the age of sixty-eight years, and the mother departed this life in 1859. To them were born eight children, five sons and three daughters, and three of the sons are now living in the United States. James, the eldest, settled in York county, Nebraska, in 1873 or 1874, but in 1876 removed to the Black Hills, where he still resides. In connection with the operation of his large ranch, he also engages in preaching for the Baptist church. John is engaged in mining near Keystone, South Dakota.

      In the common schools of his native land, Kirman Tutty acquired his literary education, and during his youth he also became familiar with every department of farm work. In April, 1872, he emigrated to America, landing in New York city, and proceeded at once to Chicago, Illinois. From there he went to Davenport, Iowa, where he remained one year, and later engaged in farming in Gentry county, Missouri, for a little over a year. Coming to York county, Nebraska, in 1875, he purchased a homestead right in McFadden township, and upon the raw land he constructed a dugout, which was the first home of the family in this state, but later replaced by a more comfortable frame residence. To the cultivation and improvement of that farm, Mr. Tutty devoted his attention for five years, and on selling that place bought a quarter section adjoining it on the south. There he lived until 1883, when he came to Fillmore county, and bought the farm where he now resides, it being the southwest quarter of section 27, Fairmont township, which he has placed under a high state of cultivation and improved in an excellent manner.

      In September, 1866, Mr. Tutty led to the marriage altar Miss Matilda Caster, a native of London, England, and a daughter of Richard and Anna (Vasey) Caster, who were horn in Berkshire and Yorkshire, England, respectively, and were representatives of some of the oldest families in that country. Mr. and Mrs. Tutty have three children Agnes, now the wife of L. B. Neihaus, who lives one mile from the Tutty homestead; Daniel, a resident of Fairmont, who is married and has three children; and John W., at home with his parents.

      Mr. and Mrs. Tutty are both devout members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and he also belongs to the Sons and Daughters of Protection. In political sentiment he is a Republican, but has never sought nor desired office. He is one of the prominent and representative men of his township, and wherever known is held in high regard. 

Letter/label or barHARLES M. SMITH, who is residing on section 29, McFadden township, came to York county in February, 1874, and bought the northwest quarter of section 29, township 9, range 2. It was railroad land, and cost him seven dollars an acre. It was raw prairie, and he was one of the first settlers in his neighborhood. He made his home for a time with his brother-in-law, Benjamin Johnson, for a year, and then rented a farm on the Blue river, where he spent a second year, and then he built a house on his own land. During these two years he had done some work on his own farm, and had a sod house. He traded a team, harness and wagon for the homestead right to eighty acres in section 28, and that he might hold this he put up a house and secured his title by a residence of five years.



He bought the southwest quarter of section 29, and put a frame house on his purchase, and there he has his present home. He has improved his property and now has a fine farm. He owns in all six hundred acres in McFadden township, a very satisfactory statement, when it is considered that Mr. Smith arrived in this county with less than a thousand dollars in money, and he will never forget the year of the grasshopper visitation that swept his place bare of corn.

      Mr. Smith was born in Wapello county, Iowa, March 1, 1851, and was a son of Charles and Sarah (Dubenhier) Smith. They were among the early pioneers of that region. His father died when he was but ten years old, but his mother lived to an advanced age. He was reared on the Hawkeye homestead, and received a common-school education. He was the youngest in a family of four boys, and when he attained maturity he had charge of the Iowa homestead for several years. He was married November 11, 1870, to Miss Mary J. Howell, a native of England, who came to this country when a child under the care of her parents, Matthew and Jane (Watkins) Howell. After the marriage the young couple rented a farm for several years before coming to this county. They are the parents of seven children. George, Bertha, Frank, John, Sadie, Maggie and Jennie. Mr. Smith is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America, and is a Republican. 

Letter/label or barOLOMON CASE ALLEN is an honored resident of David City, where he is living, retired from active business, in a comfortable home that is the center of true and generous hospitality. He is one of the old settlers of Butler county, formerly being one of its successful farmers, and is now passing the evening of his life enjoying the fruit of his labor.

      Our subject was born in Tioga county, New York, in May 22, 1822. The family formerly lived in Connecticut. Our subject was the older of a family of two sons, his brother, Orrin D., is now living in New York and is engaged in the mercantile business. In his early life our subject learned the shoemaker's trade, but on the account of poor health was obliged to discontinue this work and turn his attention to some less confining employment, and farming seemed to him the most desirable outdoor work. While yet living in New York, he was united in marriage to Miss Anna C. Whitney, a daughter of Samuel Whitney, who died in Butler county, Nebraska, in 1887, at the advanced age of eighty-seven years.

      Shortly after his marriage to Miss Anna C. Whitney, our subject and his wife moved to southern Wisconsin, where their oldest son, Samuel Whitney Allen, was born. They soon after moved to Ogle county, Illinois, and settled on Rock River for a short time and then moved to the southern part of the county and settled on a farm near Rochelle. In Ogle county, the other children were born, viz.: Emily E., who married Mr. Wetzel, and is now living at Curtis, Nebraska; Charles D., is living in Summit township, Butler county, Nebraska; Fred A., for some time one of the officials of the institute for the feeble minded, at Beatrice, Nebraska, but now living with his parents at David City; Evaline, married Mr. Leui, and is a resident of Polk county, Nebraska, and Annie L., wife of Mr. Miller, died at McPherson, Kansas, in 1897. Upon moving to Butler county, Nebraska, in 1875, our subject settled on section 31, Olive township, where he now owns three hundred and twenty acres of fine farming land, furnished with choice improvements. This he made his home until a few years ago, when he decided to rent his farm and move to David City and spend his declining years in comfort and retirement. The city resi-



dence in which he and the estimable lady, who for nearly fifty years has shared alike his griefs and joys, losses and gains, are now making their home is among the most beautiful and attractive in the city, and they enjoy the confidence and esteem of a wide circle of friends. In politics, Mr. Allen is a Populist, but has never sought or filled office. 

Letter/label or barERMAN MEYER, the present popular and accommodating postmaster of Staplehurst, is widely known as an enterprising merchant whose constant aim is to keep in the front rank of the procession. He has been a resident of Seward county since 1875, and was the first merchant of this village to offer the people the advantage of a large and well selected stock of goods. His enterprise in this direction was quickly rewarded by a large and increasing patronage.

      Mr. Meyer was born in Hanover, Germany, August 11, 1849, and is a son of Deterick and Margurette Meyer. They were natives of Germany, and came of a long line of Hanoverian ancestry. They died when Herman was only four years old. He was taken into the home of a sister; and grew to manhood under her fostering care. She gave him such education as her circumstances permitted, and prepared him for an honorable and useful life. He left Hanover in 1874 in company with an older brother, and sought the American shore, which had been a haven of desire to millions of ambitious sons of his native land. They made their way to Randolph county, Illinois, where they spent one year, but Herman was not satisfied with the outlook, and pushed farther west. In the spring of 1875 he entered this county, and purchased a farm near Seward. He improved it, and held it for several years. As the county filled up it became desirable, and he sold it for a good price. He moved nearer the village, and taking another farm operated it for several years. He saw an opening for a good store in town, and took advantage of it. He established a general mercantile business, and while he was not the first merchant of the place, he was the first to carry any large line of goods. He was the original implement and hardware dealer of this section of the county, and this interest has assumed large proportions in his hands. He is still at the old stand, and caters as successfully as ever to the wants of the community. He was appointed postmaster under President Harrison; President Cleveland displaced him, and he was reappointed by present administration. in 1897.

      Mr. Meyer and Miss Fredrika Von der Ohe were united in marriage November 1, 1877. She is of German birth, and is an accomplished and popular lady, and presides with grace and dignity over her household. They are the parents of three girls and two boys, John, Henry, Emma, Fredia, and Dora. They belong to the German Lutheran church, and make their faith a practical power. He is a Republican, and has considerable influence in town and county affairs. He has served on the county committee, and his opinion has weight in its deliberations. He is one of the leading citizens of the town. 

Letter/label or bar. M. ALDRICH.--Among the prominent agriculturists who have assisted materially in the development of Fillmore county is the subject of this sketch, who is residing on section 33, Fairmont township. He was born in Cumberland county, Rhode Island, July 25, 1830, and is a worthy representative of one of the honored old families of that state. There his paternal grandfather, Nathan Aldrich, spent his entire life as a farmer and owned an extensive tract of land. He was very fond of hunt-



ing and during his younger years was an expert marksman. His old home is still standing, and during his life there was never a stove inside of it, the cooking and heating being done by fireplaces. He was born in 1762 and, died February 28, 1851. He was twice married, his first wife, and the grandmother of our subject, being Phebe Appleby, who was born September 30, 1765, and died March 26, 1824. His second union was with a Connecticut lady. He was the father of seven children, five sons and two daughters, all of whom are now deceased. The sons all grew to manhood in Rhode Island, but later two removed to New York State and one daughter became a resident of Oregon.

      Simeon Aldrich, our subject's father, was born in Rhode Island, February 20, 1794, and was reared and educated in that state, attending its public schools. He followed farming until 1840, when he sold his place and commenced working in machine shops, but his last years were spent in retirement from active labor. He was married, October 6, 1825, to Miss Mary Daniels, also a native of Rhode Island, and they become the parents of seven children, four sons and three daughters, all of whom are still living with the exception of one, but our subject is the only representative of the family in Fillmore county, Nebraska. The mother, who was a faithful member of the Friends' church, departed this life in 1875, and the father passed away August 12, 1877. He was a stanch supporter of the Republican party and its principles, and most acceptably served as tax collector of his district.

      Our subject spent the first sixteen years of his life in his native state and pursued his studies in its public schools. He then went to Connecticut, where he worked in a woolen factory for some time, and from there removed to Manville, Massachusetts, where he had charge of a similar factory for a short time. Returning to Connecticut, he learned the trade of a cigar maker, which he followed there for eighteen years, and then moved to Cortland, New York, where he engaged in the manufacture of cigars for two years. In 1865 he came farther west and took up his residence in Bureau county, Illinois, where he worked at his trade until his factory and his entire possessions were destroyed by fire. Later he followed farming, conducted a brickyard and engaged in other callings in Illinois until coming to Fillmore county, Nebraska, in 1874. Here he purchased a tract of railroad land on section 33, Fairmont township, for twelve dollars and fifty cents per acre, and from the wild land developed the fine farm on which he now resides, it being to-day one of the most desirable places in the township. On his arrival here he erected a good frame house which he still occupies. The country at this time was mostly in its primitive condition, and in the spring and fall large numbers of Indians passed through this region on their excursions north. On taking up his abode here, Mr. Aldrich had but thirty-four dollars in money and a team of horses, and the first year his entire crops were destroyed by the grasshoppers, with the exception of his wheat, but by industry, perseverance and economy he has overcome all obstacles and is to-day a well-to-do man, owning a good farm under a high state of cultivation.

      In Connecticut, Mr. Aldrich was married, in 1851, to Miss Celesta Johnson, a native of Cortland, New York, and a daughter of Joseph and Harriet (Sisson) Johnson. Her father was born in Connecticut. Of the seven children born to our subject and his wife only two are now living. They are as follows: Inez married Isaac Eastwood, and died, leaving one child, Sadie; Murtis married G. W. Wellman, and died, leaving two sons, Glenn and Winn; Rhena, Orman and Rosalia, are all deceased; Ivan is still



living; he has three children, Imelda, Ira and Mary; and Hattie is now the wife of F. C. Chapin, of Fairmont, by whom she has four children, Pliny, Ollie, Ray and Charles. Mr. Aldrich has been called upon to mourn the loss of his estimable wife, who died in 883. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in all its branches, and is a supporter of the Republican party, but has never sought official honors, being convinced that he can serve the interests of the public fully as well by sustaining the principles of the party, and allowing other men to enjoy the offices. 

Letter/label or barENRY Q. ERB.--Among the young men of York county who have selected agriculture as their vocation in life, and who, judging from present indications, are bound to realize their most sanguine anticipations, is the subject of this biographical notice, who is residing on section 28, Baker township. He was born on that farm June 9, 1877, a son of David and Gertrude (Quering) Erb, both of whom are now deceased. The father was a native of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, born January 12, 1836, of German descent, and was one of the pioneers of York county, Nebraska, locating in Baker township, in 1873. He purchased one hundred and sixty acres of wild prairie, which he soon transformed into a fine farm. Being industrious, thrifty, and a good manager, he prospered in his undertakings, and became one of the most substantial farmers of the county, owning at the time of his death which occurred December 11, 1893, six hundred and forty acres of valuable land in York county. He was honored and respected by all who knew him. His wife had died when our subject was only two years old, leaving two children, the younger being Sarah Q., now the wife of Frank Broadwell, a farmer of Baker township.

      With the exception of when visiting relatives in Pennsylvania, the subject of this sketch has spent his entire life upon the home farm in Nebraska, and in the district schools near his home he obtained a good practical education, which has well fitted him for life's responsible duties. At the death of his father he came into control of the farm, and being a systematic and skilled agriculturist he is now successfully operating three hundred and twenty acres, nearly all of which is under a high state of cultivation. In connection with general farming he is quite extensively engaged in stock raising, and is also prosperous in that line of business.

      On the 5th of January, 1898, Mr. Erb was united in marriage with Miss Esther Peck, also a native of York county, and a daughter of John H. and Hattie E. (Carr) Peck, who were old settlers of the county. Mr. and Mrs. Erb are members of the Christian church at Charleston, and in social circles occupy an enviable position. Politically he is identified with the Republican party. 

Letter/label or barILLER VALENTINE is one of the prosperous and substantial farmers of Fillmore county, his home being on section 22, Belle Prairie township. His career proves that the only true success in life is that which is accomplished by personal effort and consecutive industry. It proves that the road to success is open to all young men who have the courage to tread its pathway, and the life-record of such a man should serve as an inspiration to the young of this and future generations, and teach by incontrovertible facts that success is ambition's answer.

     Mr. Valentine was born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, January 16, 1838, a son of William and Julia (Valentine) Valentine, who spent their last years in Illinois, where both died in 1856, the mother sur-

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