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enlisting in Company C, Fifty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and faithfully serving until the close of the war. After the fall of Atlanta! his regiment joined Sherman's army on the celebrated march to the sea. Mr. Sisty was always found at his place of duty, valiantly defending the old flag and the cause it represented, and in days of peace has proved a valuable citizen of the community, winning the confidence and esteem of all with whom he comes in contact either in business or social life. Politically he is an ardent Republican, and never fails to cast his ballot for the candidates of that party. 

Letter/label or barAMUEL BAIR, a leading and representative citizen of Fairmont township, Fillmore county, Nebraska, is successfully engaged in agricultural pursuits on section 2. where he has made his home since 1870. A gentleman of integrity and sterling worth, he has pursued the even tenor of his way as an honest man and good citizen, and commands the respect of all who know him.

      Mr. Bair was born in Bedford county, Pennsylavania (sic), May 4, 1837, and is a son of Samuel and Nancy (Anderson) Bair, also natives of Pennsylvanaia (sic), where the father died, but the mother's death occurred at the home of our subject in this county. The paternal grandfather, Zacharias Bair, was a native of Maryland and was a farmer by occupation, as have been most of the ancestors of our subject.

      Mr. Bair, of this review, was reared in his native state and is indebted to its public schools for his educational advantages. There he commenced life for himself as a farmer, and also engaged in blacksmithing to some extent. In the spring of 1867, he removed to Fulton county, Illinois, and the following three years were passed in that county and in Knox county, the same state. The year 1870 witnessed his arrival in Nebraska, and he immediately took up the homestead he now occupies, his papers being the first wade out for any land in his township or range. In the first sod-house he constructed he lived for one year, and then replaced it by a larger and better one, which served as his home for eight years, it then giving place to his present comfortable and pleasant frame residence. He soon transformed the wild land into highly cultivated fields, and the farm now ranks second to none in the county. Although his crops were destroyed by the grasshoppers in 1874, he has prospered in his adopted state and is now quite well to do.

     On the 29th of April, 1858, was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Bair and Miss Eleanor French, also a native of Pennsylvania, of which state her parents, Israel and Mary (Edwards) French, were life-long residents. Her paternal grandfather came to this country from England. Of the twelve children born to our subject and his wife, eight are still living, as follows: George now a resident of York county, Nebraska, married Sarah Kaolin and has five children, two sons and three daughters; Isabel is the wife of L. R. King, of Nuckolls county, Nebraska, and has six children, two sons and four daughters; Anna E. is the wife of L. Fraizer, of Buffalo county, Nebraska, and they have five children, three sons and two daughters; William H., who lives near the home farm, wedded Mary Jordan and they have four children, one son and three daughters; Edwin S., also a resident of Fairmont township, married Lizzie Drumond and they have one daughter; Samuel W., who lives three miles east of the old homestead, married Lucy Drumond and has one son; Ernest N. resides at home and is successfully engaged in teaching school; and Clara F. is also at home. Mr. and Mrs. Bair are earnest and faithful members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and merit



and receive the respect and esteem of all who know them. In his political views, he is a stalwart Republican, but has never cared for the honors or emoluments of public office. 

Letter/label or barUMNER DARNELL, one of the most persevering, energetic and progressive agriculturists of Butler county, as well as one of the most popular and influential citizens, resides on section 4, Ulysses township, where he made his home since the first of May, 1896. He is an old settler in the county and has taken an, active and prominent part in the early development of this region.

      Mr. Darnell was born Knox county, Illinois, April 16, 1839, and is of remote Scotch-Irish descent. His father, William Darnell, was a native of North Carolina, born about 1806, but when a child was taken by his parents to Ohio, where he grew to manhood and married Priscilla Thurman, daughter of Thomas Thurman, and niece of Allen G. Thurman, the prominent statesman. Prior to the Black Hawk war, Mr. and Mrs. Darnell left their Ohio home and removed to Knox county, Illinois, being among the first settlers of that region. The father was reared upon a farm, and throughout life continued to follow agricultural pursuits.

      In early life Sumner Darnell displayed a love of adventure and this led him, in 1859, to join a party, in which were five older brothers, bound for the gold fields of the west. The project, however, was abandoned after the party reached Nebraska, much to the disgust of our subject, but being a mere boy at that time and unsupported in his desire to continue, he was forced to submit to the decision of the majority. It was on this occasion that he first gazed on the prairies of Butler county, the party having reached a point in this county when they determined to retrace their steps. After his return to Illinois, Mr. Darnell was married in 1861 to Rachel Zimmerman, a daughter of Thomas Zimmerman, formerly a resident of Ohio, and later a homesteader in Butler county, Nebraska, where he died in January, 1885.

      Prompted by a spirit of patriotism, Mr. Darnell enlisted in August, 1862, in Company F, Eighty-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but owing to a severe attack of rheumatism he was honorably discharged before the expiration of a year. Not, however, before he had a taste of real war at Perryville, Tennessee. After his discharge he returned to his home and family, his oldest daughter having been born before he enlisted. Besides our subject he had five brothers in the service, the family having valiantly aided their country in her successful efforts to preserve the Union.

      In the early spring of 1867 Mr. Darnell started with a complete outfit and a fine team of horses for Nebraska, with the intention of making for himself and family a home on the unbroken prairies, reaching Butler county about the first of May. After erecting a cabin he returned to Illinois for his family, then consisting of his wife and three children--Martha, Sumner J. and Charles. In addition to his outfit, Mr. Darnell had three hundred dollars in cash on locating in this county, but before the first winter had passed this was all gone and he found himself in debt for ten dollars' worth of supplies to start the next second season. This season proved a failure, and probably the darkest period in his life was the second winter of his residence in Butler county. In fact, it was only by the most herculean efforts that he managed to stick to his claim, where a less determined spirit would have abandoned all and returned to civilization. Though the "wolf was often at his door," Mr. Darnell's courage never waned, and with the coming of spring came



more settlers and brighter prospects. But few of this generation can realize the hardships of those early pioneer days. Since coming to Nebraska the family circle has been increased by the birth of four other children, namely: Fred, Judd, Myrtle and Maud.

      Mr. Darnell is a recognized leader in the ranks of the Republican party in his community, and in 1887 was honored by his party by the nomination for sheriff of the county. Being duly elected by a handsome majority, he served for one term with credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of the general public. He is a Royal Arch Mason, being the second oldest in the county, and he is also an honored member of Lincoln Post, No. 10, G. A. R. He is widely and favorably known and is held in high regard by all with whom he comes in contact. 

Letter/label or barRASTUS M. HICKMAN.--No state in the Union can boast of a more wide-awake, energetic and enterprising class of agriculturists than Nebraska, and of these Seward county has its share, including the subject of this biographical sketch, who was also a faithful defender of the Union during the dark days of the Civil war. He was born in Randolph county, Indiana, January 6, 1840, and is a son of Samuel and Margarie (Moffett) Hickman, the former a native of North Carolina, the latter of Indiana. The paternal grandfather, John Hickman, was also born in North Carolina, but at an early day in its history removed to the Hoosier state, where he and his family followed agricultural pursuits for several years. The father of our subject passed his last days in Iowa, where his death occurred in November, 1896.

      Erastus M. Hickman spent his boyhood and youth in Indiana and Iowa, and as soon as old enough assisted in the work of the farm, in this way acquiring an excellent knowledge of the occupation he has made his life-work. Laying aside all personal considerations, he joined the Union army in 1862, becoming a member of Company C, Twenty-second Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and he was in active service for three years, taking part in the engagements at Champion Hill, Black river, Vicksburg, Port Gibson and Grand Gulf. Fortunately he escaped without wounds, and at the close of the war returned to. his home in Iowa with an honorable war record. He continued a resident of that state until May, 1869, when he came to Seward county and homesteaded the tract on which he now resides, his first dwelling here being a sod house. He has prospered in his new home, and now owns three quarter-sections of good land, all under cultivation and improved with good and substantial buildings.

      On the 1st of January, 1866, Mr. Hickman led to the marriage altar Miss Lizzie Thomas, a native of Ohio, and a daughter of George W. and Elizabeth (Reed) Thomas, who at an early day removed to Iowa and subsequently came to Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Hickman have become the parents of seven children, as follows: Walter E., Helen G., Jennie F., E. Perry, Edna F. Ethan E. and Effie L., all living. In politics Mr. Hickman is independent, and has been honored with the office of justice of the peace and assessor, which he most acceptably filled. 

Letter/label or barBRAHAM SMITH, whose attractive and well-kept acres on section 29, Hays township, York county, attest the hand of a master farmer, has been a resident there for about twelve years, and in that time has proved himself a good neighbor, an honest man and a patriotic citizen. He is interested in public affairs, keeps the run of current events, and is not afraid of meeting



his duty in any social or business relation in which he may be involved.

      Mr. Smith was born in Rock Island county, Illinois, October 31, 1846, and is a son of Joseph and Catherine (Fuhlmer) Smith. His parents were natives of Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, and surrounded their children with the most wholesome influences of the Quaker commonwealth. They came west in 1838, and were drawn to the vicinity of Rock Island by the marvelous possibilities that it presented for the establishment and growth of a great industrial center. His father, who was born in 1812, lived to see Rock Island, Davenport and Moline assume importance as commercial cities. He died in 1863, and his name is remembered as that of an honorable and upright man, a tiller of the soil all his days, and throughout his career industrious and hard working. His wife, the mother of the subject of this writing, survives him, and is still living on the Rock Island homestead at the advanced age of eighty-one.

      Abraham Smith grew to manhood under the parental roof, and when he reached maturity took up his father's occupation, and, like him, has pursued an agricultural career, and derived his living from the fields. He was educated in the common schools of his county, and was married there in 1872 to Miss Eliza Bailey, a lady of character and attainments. She is a native of Rock Island county, and is a daughter of Charles and Carlissa (Calahan) Bailey. Her father was born in Delaware and her mother in Virginia, and after their marriage settled in Ohio. They came still further west, and were numbered among the pioneers of Rock Island county. The wife and mother died when Eliza was a little girl, but her father lived for many years after, and died in Crawford county, Iowa in 1880. Mr. Smith tilled a rented farm in Illinois for two years, and met with very fair success. At the end of that time he bought a farm in Crawford county, Iowa, which he conducted very successfully for several years. In 1876 he came to this county, and bought a farm which became his family residence, and where he is found today very comfortably situated. It consists of one hundred and fifty-four acres, and was practically all under cultivation at its purchase. Under his able management it has greatly increased in value, and is to-day one of the most attractive farms in this part of the county. They are the parents of one son, Glenn, a bright and hopeful lad, who was born in their Iowa home. 

Letter/label or bar. J. VENELL.--The representatives of the farming interests of Fillmore county acknowlege (sic) this gentleman to be one of the important factors who have aided in bringing this section of the state to its present enviable condition. He is a man of more than ordinary business capacity, intelligent and well-informed, and at once upon becoming a resident here identified himself with the progress and best interests of the people. He now owns and operates a fine farm of two hundred acres in Bryant precinct, and is meeting with a well-deserved success.

      Mr. Venell was born in Sweden, in 1842, and was there reared and educated. His parents never came to America, both dying in Sweden, the father at the age of eighty-three years, the mother at the age of eighty. In their family were eleven children, seven sons and four daughters, all of whom emigrated to the new world with the exception of three sons. Those still living are Aaron, Emma, Ida, Oscar, and N. J., of this review.

      For two years our subject served as a soldier in the Swedish army, and later engaged in farming in his native land until twenty-five years of age, when he decided to try his fortune on this side of the At-



lantic, believing that better opportunities were afforded ambitious young men in the United States. After taking up his residence here he first worked at the carpenter's trade, which he had learned in Sweden. In 1873, he was united in marriage with Miss Minnie Walstrom, of Chicago, Illinois, who was born in Sweden, in 1854. Her father died at the age of seventy years, while living in Burlington, Iowa, leaving a widow and three children, two daughters and one son. The mother now finds a pleasant home with our subject, while one daughter lives in Edgar, Nebraska, and the son in Sweden. Mr. and Mrs. Venell have a family of nine children, namely: Clara, Lydia, Esther, Amelia, Ellen, Arthur, George, Ervin and Julia, all at home with the exception of the two oldest.

      Coming to Fillmore county, Nebraska, in 1879, Mr. Venell bought one hundred and sixty acres of land in, Bryant precinct, at four dollars and fifty cents per acre, and in 1889 purchased forty acres more at twenty-five dollars per acre, and the raw land he has since converted into well-cultivated fields. He has made many improvements upon the place which add to its value and attractive appearance and now has one of the best farms of its size in the precinct. Politically he has always been a stanch supporter of the men and measures of the Republican party. Both he and his wife were confirmed in the Swedish Lutheran church before leaving their native land, but now belong to the Free Mission church. They are also influential and highly respected people Of the community in which they reside. 

Letter/label or barENRY C. MAYLAND, a succcessful (sic) and enterprising farmer and early settler of Seward county, has been prominently identified with the agricultural and business interests of this section of the state for thirty years. His first home was in Allen county, Indiana, where he was born May 29, 1857, a son of Ferdinand and Lezetta (Beaming) Mayland. The father was a native of Germany, but during childhood was brought to the United States by his parents, who located in Allen county, Indiana, and there he grew up and followed farming and stock raising until 1868. It was in that year that he came to Seward county, Nebraska, and settled in F. township, where he erected a log cabin and then turned his. attention to the development and cultivation of his, land. He still resides upon that farm and held in high regard by the entire community. Of the six sons and three daughters born to him three now living and all make their home in Seward county. The daughters are as follows: Elizabeth S., Mary and Sophia, all of whom reside in the city of Seward.

      In a little log school-house in Indiana, Henry C. Mayland obtained his early education, which has been greatly supplemented by reading, study and observation in later years. Coming with his parents to Nebraska, he assisted in herding cattle and in making a home in the wild west. He remained under the parental roof until nearly twenty-one years of age, and then started out in life for himself without means, but with a determination to succeed. He worked as a farm laborer for some years, and then rented land which he successfully operated until able to boy a farm of his own. He is now the possessor of a fine farm of two hundred acres, which he has placed under a high state of cultivation, but he has not confined his attention alone to agricultural pursuits, but has branched out into other lines of business, making a specialty of the raising and shipping of stock. From 1884 until 1894 he also conducted a butcher shop in Staplehurst, and since then has devoted his time almost exclusively to shipping stock. He is an enter-



prising, wide-awake business man, and the success that he has already achieved in life is certainly well merited.

      Mr. Mayland was married in 1885 to Mrs. Jennie Smith, a native of New York state, and to them has been born one son, Charles H. The parents are both members of the Presbyterian church, and Mr. Mayland also belongs to the Ancient Order of United Workmen. Politically he is an ardent Republican, but has never sought or desired office. 

Letter/label or barIRAM S. CRAIG.--Many of the pioneers of Butler county served their country during the dark days of the Rebellion, making a record honorable and glorious. Among the brave boys in blue was Mr. Craig, now a leading citizen and enterprising business man of Ulysses, having been prominently identified with the interests of that village for over a quarter of a century.

      A native of Ohio, Mr. Craig was born in Highland county, April 18, 1847, and is a son of Joseph Craig, whose birth occurred in Washington county, Pennsylvania, in 1811. When a young man the father removed to Ohio and settled in Brown county, where he subsequently married Miss Telitha Runion, a daughter of Henry Runion. For twenty-seven years they continued to make their home in the Buckeye state, where were born to them a family of twelve children, of whom our subject was the seventh in order of birth. On leaving Ohio they went to Illinois, and in that state and Nebraska the father successfully engaged in the practice of medicine for many years.

      The first twelve years of his life Hiram S. Craig passed in his native state, and in its common schools he began his education. He then accompanied his parents on their removal to Mercer county, Illinois, and remained with them until after the outbreak of the Civil war. Responding to the President's call for aid in 1863, he entered the United States Marine service, where he remained but a short time, and then enlisted in the Thirtieth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, serving with that regiment until hostilities ceased, and participating in many of the fiercest battles of the war. He took part in the engagements at Buzzard's Roost, Kingston, Bush Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, and at the battle of Peach Tree Creek was wounded, but remained with his command until after the fall of Atlanta. He was with Sherman on the march to the sea; and in the battles of Marietta and Jonesboro, and was present at the surrender of General Johnston at Raleigh, North Carolina. After this he went to Washington, where he took part in the grand review. He was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, and was discharged at Springfield, Illinois. His war record is one to which he may point with pride.

      While in the service, his father's family had moved to Knox county, Illinois, and there Mr. Craig joined them after his discharge. He then learned the wheelwright's trade, which he followed for a time. In Knox county, he was married in August, 1869, to Miss Lucinda Mick, a daughter of George A. Mick, formerly of Ohio, who emigrated to Illinois in the '50s, and in 1870 came to Butler county, Nebraska, where he secured a homested (sic) on section 28, Union township. After his marriage, Mr. Craig continued to live in Illinois until 1871, and there his oldest child--Joseph--was born. Since coming to Nebraska seven other children have been added to the family, five sons and two daughters, namely: Homer, Eva, Claude, Cora, Bert, Hiram H. and George.

      On the 15th of May, 1871, Mr. Craig arrived in Butler county, and at one secured a homestead on section 26, Read township, but has lived most of the time in Ulysses, where for some time he was engaged in



contracting and building, erecting many of the best buildings in the village. He was also interested in the furniture and undertaking business for two years. For the past several years he has been engaged in the real estate and loan business, with an office in the State Bank building, and is also interested in western land and is serving as notary public. His strict integrity and honorable dealing in business commend him to the confidence of all; his pleasant manner wins him friends; and he is one of the popular and honored citizens of his adopted county. Socially he, affiliates with the Masonic Order and the Grand Army of the Republic, and religiously is a faithful member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Letter/label or barONATHON A. HORTON, an honored pioneer and worthy citizen of Fairmont township, Fillmore county, Nebraska, has for almost thirty years been prominently identified with its agricultural interests and is justly numbered among its most enterprising and progressive farmers. Like many of our best citizens, he is a native of Pennsylvania, born in Bedford county, July 11, 1843. His parents, Ezekiel and Nancy (Anderson) Horton, were also born in that state, and the paternal grandfather, Abner Horton, a native of England, spent the greater part of his life in Pennsylvania, where he engaged in farming until called from this life. The father of our subject, also a farmer by occupation, was born in 1819, and in 1866 removed from his native state to Fulton county, Illinois, where he made his home until coming to Fillmore county, Nebraska, in the fall of 1879. Here he took up a homestead of eighty acres adjoining the tract where our subject now lives,, and to the cultivation and improvement of his land devoted his attention until his death, which occurred March 22, 1891. His wife, who was born April 8, 1809, departed this life June 13, 1886. To this worthy couple were born two sons: James W., who is now living in Colorado; and Jonathan A. The parents were widely and favorably known in this region and left many friends to mourn their loss.

      Jonathan A. Horton was reared on a farm in his native state and assisted in its operation during the summer months, while through the winter season he attended the local schools, pursuing his studies in a log school-house of primitive style, with slab seats and heated by an immense fireplace at one end. At an early age he commenced the battle of life for himself as a farm hand and followed that calling in Pennsylvania until after the breaking out of the Civil war. In 1862, he offered his services to his country, enlisting in Company C, One Hundred Thirty-third Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, under Colonel Spegman, but after serving for nearly a year he was discharged from the service on account of disability. He took part in the battle of Antietam and was in numerous skirmishes, seeing much hard service in Virginia and Maryland.

      After his discharge, Mr. Horton returned to his home in Pennsylvania, but in 1865 went to Fulton county, Illinois, where he worked for others for about a year, and then rented land which he operated on his own account until 1870, when he came to Fillmore county, Nebraska, traveling the entire distance in a covered wagon. He selected the homestead on section 2, Fairmont township, where he now resides, and in the sod house he erected thereon, he made his home for eleven years, replacing in at the end of that time by a good frame residence. He has placed the land under a high state of cultivation and has made many excellent improvements upon the farm, which add greatly to its value and attractive appearance. In 1874 his crops were destroyed by the grasshoppers, but he has gradually overcome all difficulties in the



path to prosperity and is now in comfortable circumstances.

      Mr. Horton was married, January 4, 1866, to Miss Hannah Figard, a native of Pennsylvania, and a daughter of James and Rachel (Evans) Figard, who removed from that place to Illinois in 1856, and are still residents of Fulton county. Nine children have been born to our subject and his estimable wife, but only four are now living, namely: George H., who wedded Mary Price, of Fillmore county, but formerly of Pennsylvania; Minerva J., wife of R. I. Bivens, who lives on a farm adjoining the Horton homestead; Minnie I., wife of J. Armstrong, of Fairmont; and Oca W., at home.

      Religiously Mr. Horton is a member of the Church of God, which was established at Indian Creek in February, 1874, and he was elected the first elder. He was officially connected with the organization at that place for many years, or as long as the church there existed, and he now holds the original records of the same. He gave land to the church for a cemetery and leased land where school No. 78 is located. Socially he is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and of the Grand Army Post at Exeter, Nebraska. His political support is always given the men and measures of the Republican party, and he has most creditably and satisfactorily served as school director for many years, and as road overseer for fourteen years. In the estimation of his fellow citizens he is one of the representative men of his community, and his circle of friends and acquaintances in Fillmore county is extensive. 

Letter/label or barHARLES W. TALBOT, a skillful and practical agriculturist whose home is on section 10, township 13, range 3, Polk county, is a native of Ohio, born in Washington county, March 1, 1850, and is a son of A. O. and Elmus (Biddle) Talbot, the former born in Ohio, in 1818, the latter in Maryland in 1820. The great-grandfather was a native of Scotland. The paternal grandfather, Rev. Charles W. Talbot, was one of the early settlers of the Buckeye state. He was a member of an Ohio regiment in the Mexican war, and was a lifelong minister of the Methodist church, serving at one time as presiding elder, and always a faithful laborer in the Master's vineyard. His life was filled with good deeds, and he died at the ripe old age of ninety years, honored and respected by all who knew him. In 1853 the parents of our subject left Ohio and removed to Mercer county, Illinois, where the father developed a fine farm. He was a quiet, unassuming man, but commanded the confidence and esteem of all the entire community. Both he and his wife held membership in the Baptist church, and she took an active part in its work. Their children were Charles W., A. O., J. M., Spencer B., Eliza, deceased, and J. R.

      The subject of this sketch obtained his education in the public schools of Mercer county, Illinois, and acquired an excellent knowledge of farm work on the old homestead there. On leaving the parental roof at the age of twenty-one, he began life for himself as a farmer in that county, but in 1872 came to Polk county, Nebraska, and secured the land on which he located the following year, and on which he still continues to reside. His first home was a sod house, which in 1879 was replaced by a good frame residence. He broke prairie the first year, and in 1874 raised some wheat, but the grasshoppers destroyed his corn. For the following two years he clerked in the store of L. Headstrom, at Stromsburg, but since that time has devoted his energies to agricultural pursuits, and now has an excellent farm of 160 acres, all under cultivation and well improved with! good build-



ings. He located here when this part of the county was very sparsely settled, and is one of the few remaining pioneers, who bore so important a part in the development and prosperity of this region.

      In October, 1882, Mr. Talbott led to the marriage altar Miss Lottie Knerr, who was born in Jefferson county, Iowa, June 8, 1854, and was educated in that state. Her father, Frederick Knerr, is now a resident of Pleasant Home precinct, Polk county, Nebraska. Four children bless this union: Richard, Ida Pearl, Mabel May and Edward.

      Fraternally, Mr. Talbott is a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Knights of the Maccabees, both of Stromsburg; and politically is prominently identified with the local Republican organization, being the candidate of his party for county commissioner in the fall of 1897. For nine years he has faithfully served on the school board in district No. 41, and always gives his support to all measures for the public good. 

Letter/label or barACOB M. WITTER.--The subject of U this notice is certainly entitled to prominent mention among the leading and enterprising citizens of Fairmont township, Fillmore county, as well as among its honored pioneers. He has been an important factor in the development and prosperity of the county for almost thirty years, and has made for himself a fine farm on the northeast quarter of section 12, Fairmont township, having transformed the wild, yet fertile land, into highly cultivated fields.

      Mr. Witter claims Pennsylvania as his native state, his birth occurring in Bedford county, June 4, 1840. His parents, Abraham and Catherine (Piper) Witter, were natives of Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. The paternal grandfather, John Witter, who was a miller by trade, settled in the Old Dominion at an early day and latter removed from there to Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, where his death occurred. The father of our subject was a millwright, and followed that occupation in connection with farming throughout life. He was a soldier of the war of 1812. He died in 1888, his wife in 1892, honored and respected by all who knew them. In their family were six sons, but our subject is the only one residing in Fillmore county, Nebraska. His maternal grandparents came to this country from Holland.

      Jacob M. Witter was reared and educated in Pennsylvania, conning his lessons in the log schoolhouses so common during his boyhood. In 1863. he enlisted for ninety days in Company B, Forty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infanty (sic), and spent most of the time in drilling and guarding prisoners. At the end of that time he returned home, but in 1864 was drafted, and this time went to the front as a member of Company F, Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Volteer (sic) Infantry, with which he served until the close of the war. He participated in the battle of Hatcher's Run, October 4, 1864; was in an engagement the same place the following year; was in the battles of Five Forks, Virginia, and Boydtown Plankroad; and was present at the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox. He took part in the grand review at Washington, District Columbia was mustered out in that city.

      Returning to his home in the Keystone state, Mr. Witter engaged in farming there until 1868, when he removed to Knox county, Illinois, but after living there two years continued his westward journey, landing in Fillmore county, Nebraska, in 1870. He made the entire trip by wagon. Upon his claim he erected a sod house, in which he lived for ten years, while breaking and improving his land. He traded his horses for oxen, and with them cultivated his land for some years. His first crops were very suc-



cessful, but in 1874 everything was destroyed by the grasshoppers. His entire quarter section is now under excellent cultivation and improved with good and sustantial (sic) buildings, which stand as monuments to his thrift and industry.

      In 1862, Mr. Witter led to the marriage altar Miss Susan French, also a native of Pennsylvania and a daughter of Israel and Mary (Edwards) French, who spent their entire lives in that state. The five children born to our subject and his wife are as follows: Etta W., now the wife of Henry Vance, of Newcastle, Wyoming; Ida M., wife of B. Gleason, also of Wyoming; John A., who is now a member of Company G, First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry, and is with the army at Manila, as one of the protectors of our newly acquired possessions in the Philippines; William M., who is in the employ of the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad; and Marcus W., at home. Both Mr. and Mrs. Witter are active and prominent members of the Indian Creek United Brethren church, with which denomination they have been connected for many years. In politics he is a Democrat. He is enterprising, industrious, upright, and, in fact, possesses in an eminent degree all the qualifications that go to make up a good citizen and a honorable man. 

Letter/label or barENRY WELLMAN, long identified with the farming and stock-raising interests of Beaver township, York county, is an enterprising and successful exponent of modern agricultural ideas as they are applied to conditions presented by life and labor in Nebraska. He is the proprietor of two very valuable farms, both highly improved and provided with ample and commodious farm buildings of every sort required to do business at the present time. He seeks comfort and profit, and makes use of everything that helps along the business in which he is engaged. He puts into it his heart and soul, and it has well rewarded his unshared devotion, as this sketch will hereafter show.

      Henry Wellman comes of a Teutonic ancestry, and was born on German soil February 2, 1852. He was a son of George and Louise Wellman, who were natives of Hanover. The emigrated to America after they had reached mature years, and settled in Nebraska. They are still living and make their home with their children, of whom there were originally eight. Six children are now living: Mrs. Sophia Plum, Mrs. Minnie Piper, Herman, Mrs. Zena Kellerman, Louise, who is still in the old country, and the subject of this article.

     Mr. Wellman remained in the old country until he had attained the age of eighteen years. He received good schooling, and was indoctrinated with German ideas of thrift, honor and industry. It may be said, in passing that his career in this country illustrates the value of this early training. He first set foot on the American shore in 1870, and passing directly through the city of New York, hastened on to this county. He was still too young to avail himself of the provisions of the homestead law, and he worked out on neighboring farms until he had reached the time limit. He went out into the unclaimed prairie, and located a claim on section 22, in Beaver township. At that time this tract was remote from settlement, and long isolation was prophesied the adventurous pioneer. He went on, however, built himself a sod house in which he lived for the next three years. By that time he had grown sufficiently prosperous to undertake a frame dwelling. It was a two-story building, a very substantial building, 16x32. Grasshoppers took his corn in 1874, and other plagues and troubles befell him from time to time, but he kept on, and stuck to the soil, and is a wealthy man. In 1875 he was married to

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