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efficiency in their department of the service.

      In the last of September, 1865, Mr. Chapin rejoined his family at Gloucester, Massachusetts, where he made his home until 1872, being engaged in the manufacture of yawl boats, now used by all vessels putting to sea. With his wife and two children he started westward and landed at Lincoln, Nebraska, April 5, 1872. He immediately found work at his trade in the B. & M. R. R. machine shops at Plattsmouth, where he remained for three years. In the meantime, believing he could do much more good in the world, he applied for a license from the Methodist Episcopal church to preach the Gospel and received his first charge at Wilber, Nebraska. He has since labored untiring in the Master's vineyard, and has had charge of the churches of his denomination at Geneva, Valparaiso and Peru, where his first wife died. He afterward located at Osceola, where he became acquainted with and married Mrs. Louisa Jane Austin. Her parents were Luther H. and Eleanor (O'Brien) Nutting, both of Tonawanda, New York. Her maternal grandfather, Daniel O'Brien, was a native of the Emerald Isle, but her other ancestors were all born in this country and all were tillers of the soil. Daniel O'Brien was a soldier in the Revolutionary war under General Washington, and her father served in what is often called the second war for independence, or the war of 1812. Her first husband, James Austin, was a member of the Union navy during the Civil war, and, as previously stated, her last husband, our subject, was also a defender of the Union in that struggle.

      By his first marriage Mr. Chapin had three children: (1) Nellie P. is now the wife of Herbert Mackie a farmer and stockraiser, and they have three children: Harold C., Winifred E. and Lloyd E. (2) Edward P. married Minnie Hilton, and they have two children: Maggie and Saida. (3) Edith M. makes her home with her sister in Lapeer, Nebraska. By her first husband, Mrs. Chapin had six children, of whom five are living. (1) John W. married Sarah Jeffrey and they have one child, Lawrence. (2) George C. is single and interested in mining operations in Montana. (3) Millie J. is the wife of A. M. Sheets, of Anaconda, Montana. (4) Emogene L. is the wife of William Hilbert, and they have three children: James L., Hazel E. and Rubie. (5) Willard J. married Maude Miller and they have two children: Lloyd and Clarence. All live in the far west and are interested in the rich mines of Montana.

      Like her husband, Mrs. Chapin is a faithful member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and their lives are such as command for them the respect and esteem of all with whom they come in contact. He keeps well posted on the leading questions and issues of the day, and is a believer in bimetalism. For several years he has cast his ballot with the Prohibition party and is a supporter of all measures which he believes will in any way benefit his fellow men or make the world better. 

Letter/label or barOHN WHOLSTENHOLM, who is now spending the closing years of a long and active life in peaceful retirement in the village of McCool junction, is one of the earlier settlers of York county. He made a permanent settlement on section 26, McFadden township, in the fall of 1871, where he secured a quarter section of land under the law relating to soldiers' claims under the homestead act. He had made a trip into this county the previous year, and had filed his first claim upon the land and constructed a dug-out, which became the first home of his family after their arrival in the county. In 1874 he erected a two-story frame residence at a cost of one thousand dollars. At that



day it was one of the most imposing country residences in the county. The new settlers found no water except in the "basins," but they came prepared with tools, and immediately drilled a well. As neighbors congregated, he found well-drilling quite a paying occupation, and many of the best farm wells of the region are the result of his labors. Lincoln was the nearest trading point for the people of this section at that time, and, as it was over fifty miles away, going to market was an inconvenient undertaking. There were no roads on the prairie, and on one occasion, when the neighbors were all out of flour, Mr. Wholstenholm started for a mill some eight miles away. The sun was hid by clouds, he lost his way, and spent the afternoon in aimless wanderings. He spent the night in his wagon, and meeting a man the next morning discovered he was far away from his destination. The trip consumed three days, and in his absence everybody had to live on crushed corn. His return with four sacks of corn was the occasion of a joyful demonstration.

      Mr. Wholstenholm continued to live upon his homestead and develop and improve it in every way. He added one hundred and sixty acres to the place, which he afterward divided among his two sons. He still holds the original homestead, which he rents to good advantage. He relates that at the time settlers were coming in rapidly, and the land was being taken correspondingly fast, he started for Fairmont early one morning to do some trading. He took the usual path, and before he saw where he was going had driven across an elevation in the way, of which he had known nothing. He had scarcely passed over it, when he was surprised to hear a man's voice, and learn that he had driven entirely over the habitation of a new settler. The man had dug a hole in the ground, and had covered it over with dirt and sod and had lived there some two weeks.

      Mr. Wholstenholm was born in Haywood, Lancastershire, England, April 17, 1823. and is a son of William and Martha (Aspinall) Wholstenholm, who were also of English nativity. They lived and died in England. He was reared in his native town, and, his. parents being poor, he was obliged to go to work in the cotton mills when only eight years old for the magnificent salary of a shilling a week. He worked in the mills until he was twenty-five years old and became a capable carder. At this time he tired of the old world and set out to seek his fortune in America. In 1850 he crossed the ocean in a sailing vessel, and landed at New Orleans. He made his way up the river, and reached Peoria, Illinois, when nine weeks out from England. He worked for a farmer at thirteen dollars a month, and felt he was earning large wages. Three years after his arrival he was married in Peoria county, to Miss Hannah Lonsdale, who was born in his native town in England. She was a daughter of Thomas and Helen (Halsted) Lonsdale, and bore her husband six children, James, Miles, John, Martha A., Ellen and Alice. She died in 1875, leaving behind her the saintly memories of a good woman, and a true wife and mother. Mr. Wholstenholm subsequently married again, and Anna Perrins became his wife in February, 1878. She was also a native of Haywood, England. Her parents were John and Margaret (Norris) Perrins, and they lived and died in their English home.

      Mr. Wholstenholm enlisted August 15, 1862, in Company K, seventy-seventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and served throughout the Civil war. He participated in many important engagements, and the roll of the battles in which he was engaged would contain the greater part of the more important events of the war in the west. He was at Chickasaw Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Magnolia Hills, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicksburg, Jackson, Mansfield, Kane River,



Marksville, Yellow Bayou, Fort Gaines, Spanish Fort, Blakely and Whistler Station, and many unimportant skirmishes not here mentioned. Throughout this long and active career he was not wounded, nor taken prisoner, though he was in many dangerous situations, and on more than one occasion would have sold out his-chances for a small consideration. On one occasion he was struck by a spent rifle ball. It pierced through two thicknesses of his leather belt, and was stopped by his cartridge box. He was discharged at Mobile, Alabama, July 10, 1865, and was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois. He is, as might be expected, a prominent member of the Lushton post of the Grand Army of the Republic, and takes much interest in its prosperity. He is a social member of the Ancient Order of the United Workmen, and gives much care to the welfare of that splendid institution. In politics he takes an independent position, and holds that the best men should go into office to carry out the best measures that can be devised for the welfare and prosperity of the people. 

Letter/label or barR. WILLIAM G. HARRIGER is a well known resident of Brainard, Butler county, Nebraska, and has been intimately identified with the history of this entire region almost from its beginning. He has seen it grow from a prairie wilderness to its present populous and prosperous condition, and in many ways he has rendered its people valuable service. The history of the county demands his name.

      Dr. Harriger was born in Canada in 1848, while his parents were temporarily residing in that country. He is of German descent, as his name might indicate, his grandfather; George Harriger, having been born in the German empire in 1781, coming to this country with his parents fourteen years later. They located on the banks of the Susquehanna river in Pennsylvania, where they lived and died. George Harriger removed to Jefferson county in that state in later life, where he married, and where Cyrus Harriger, the father of our subject, was born. He was married in Pennsylvania to Lavinia J. Haraga, whose parents were natives of Holland. Our subject is their oldest son, and enjoyed good educational advantages. He was educated in the public schools, and studied medicine with Dr. Barber, of Strattinsville, Pennsylvania. He remained with his preceptor, and engaged in medical studies until the breaking out of the Civil war in 1861. He enlisted in the army of the Union, and was a member of Company H, One Hundred and Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. He was presently appointed an assistant surgeon, and served two years in that capacity. He was severely wounded at Dallas, Georgia, but quickly recovered and returned to his regiment, and completed his term of enlistment. After the war he engaged in the practice of medicine, and was also a local preacher of the Methodist church. He finished his medical studies under the instruction of that Canadian institution known as Bishops' College. In 1876 he decided to remove to Nebraska, and coming into this state made his home for the first three months in Columbus, and then took charge of the North Bend Circuit. When he came to Brainard the following year, the town was in its infancy, only two or three houses having been erected, and the rest of the town being in the magnificent future. He has been in the closest touch with all its growth, and is widely known as a pioneer, who has cared for the souls and bodies of the early settlers. With all these demands upon his time and strength, Dr. Harriger has kept up with professional progress, and among men of medicine is recognized as a worthy peer and congenial associate. To him and his



estimable wife have been born five children, May, Charles H., Kittie B., Lewanron C., and Harrold. They form a bright and interesting family. The Doctor and his good wife are much respected and greatly beloved for their many good qualities by a wide circle of admiring friends, who have occasion to remember years of devoted sacrifice to the best interests of a new country. He was married June 4, 1866, to Miss Martha I. Harigan, a native of Pennsylvania. The Doctor is a member of Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is a charter member of the Woodmen of the World, Ben Hur and Cruft Post, No. 121, Grand Army of the Republic. 

Letter/label or barATRICK REA, one of the active, prominent and most enterprising citizens of Leroy township, York county, is at present engaged in farming on section 23. He is an honored son of the Emerald Isle, his birth occurring in county Limerick, Ireland, March 10, 1838, and is a son of Thomas and Bridget (Ryan) Rea, also natives of county Limerick, where they spent their lives. The father, who was a common laborer, died at the age of forty years, and the mother passed away at the age of seventy-seven. In their family were six children, four sons and two daughters, all of whom, with the exception of one daughter, eventually came to America.

      Our subject was the youngest son and upon the home farm he was reared, having no educational advantages to speak of. For a few terms during the winter he attended a subscription school, walking five miles, and carrying on his back turf which was used as fuel to keep up the fire in the schoolhouse. As his parents were very poor he was not able to attend school any length of time, as he had no money to pay his tuition. Finally times became very hard, rents were very high, and he was obliged to leave Ireland. In the fall of 1850 he came to America with one of his sisters on a sailing vessel, which was a little over three weeks in crossing the ocean. He landed in Boston and soon afterward located in Lockport, Massachusetts, where he secured work on a farm, remaining there five years. The following seven years he was employed in a stone quarry, and in 1862 removed to Illinois, locating in Clinton, Dewitt county, where he worked in the round house for a railroad company for about ten years. He then rented a farm in that county and successfully operated the same for ten years.

      In the spring of 1885, Mr. Rea came to York county, Nebraska, and rented land in Leroy township, on which very few improvements had been made. He was finally able to buy eighty acres, and as he has steadily prospered he has extended the boundaries of his farm from time to time, as his financial resources would permit, until he now has a valuable place of two hundred and forty acres, under excellent cultivation, with the exception of that used for pasture and meadow lands. A fine modern residence has been erected, and many other improvements made, representing many years of hard labor and good management on the part of the owner. He is today one of the well-to-do farmers of the township, and the prosperity that has crowned his efforts is certainly well merited, for he is one of the most industrious, enterprising and reliable citizens of the community.

      While a resident of Massachusetts, Mr. Rea was married in 1855, the lady of his choice being Miss Kate Donlon, a native of county Roscommon, Ireland, and a daughter of Thomas Donlon. They have become the parents of ten children, namely: Thomas, John, Michael, James, Mary, Bridget, Dennis, Kate and Nellie. Dennis, John, the first of the name, and Bridget are all deceased, and the others are still under



the parental roof with the exception of John and Mary, who are married in York county. Parents and children are all communicants of the Catholic church, and the family is widely and favorably known. 

Letter/label or barHARLES N. PHILLIPS, the well-known and popular postmaster of Exeter and an honored veteran of the Civil war, was born in Potter county, Pennsylvania, July 25, 1843, and belongs to one of our most loyal and patriotic American families, one that has been well represented in the wars of this country and in days of peace has been devoted to its interests. His parents were John and Mary (Richardson) Phillips, natives of New York and New Hampshire, respectively. At an early day the father removed with his parents, Nathan and Sarah Phillips, to Pennsylvania. Nathan Phillips was a soldier in the war of 1812, and his father, Isaac Phillips, the great-grandfather of our subject, was one of the heroes of the Revolution, having valiantly aided the colonies in their struggle for independence. The father, who was a farmer by occupation, entered the Union service during the dark days of the Rebellion, soon after the breaking out of the war, as a member of Company G, Forty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and participated in several engagements around Chattanooga, Tennessee, and went with Sherman as far as Atlanta, Georgia, where he was taken ill with fever. He died at Chattanooga, in August, 1864, being one of the men who so. willingly sacrificed their lives on the altar, of their country that the Union might be spared. In his family were two sons and two daughters, and the former both entered the Federal service during the Civil war. Moses R. was also a member of the Forty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, took part in many a hard-fought battle during his three years' service, and died from the effects of a sunstroke at the battle of Antietam.

      In his native state, Charles N. Phillips was reared to manhood, and in its public schools he acquired a good practical education, which has well fitted him for life's responsible duties. In August, 1862, he donned the blue and went to the front as a member of Company K, One Hundred and Forty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. He participated in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, and during the last-named engagement, in July, 1863, he suffered the loss of his right hand and was also shot in the face and shoulder. For three days he lay on the battle field uncared for, and then had his wounds dressed by a rebel surgeon. The following October, he was honorably discharged and returned home, but it was some time before he was able to engage in active labor.

      Mr. Phillips continued his residence in Pennsylvania until 1871, when he started for Nebraska in a covered wagon, driving the entire distance from Potter county, Pennsylvania, to Fillmore county, Nebraska, where he arrived after two months spent upon the road. He homesteaded the southwest quarter of section 24, Fairmont township, erected a sod house thereon, and began to break and improve his farm. There he successfully engaged in agricultural pursuits for several years and still owns the place.

      Before leaving his native state, Mr. Phillips was married, in 1870, to Miss Rosina Whitney, a native of New York, and they have become the parents of four children: Fred J., Otto C., Elva A. and Ethel, all liviving (sic) but the last named, who died when but two years old. Socially Mr. Phillips is an honored member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and politically is an ardent supporter of the men and measures of the Republican party. In July, 1897, he was



appointed postmaster of Exeter, and the prompt and able manner in which he has discharged the duties of the office has won the commendation of its many patrons. He takes a deep interest in everything pertaining to the public welfare of the town, and withholds his support from no enterprise calculated to prove of public benefit. As a citizen, friend and neighbor, he is true to every duty and justly merits the esteem in which he is held. 

Letter/label or barOSEPH McFADDEN, deceased. Among the honored pioneers of Fillmore county who opened up the way to civilization was this gentleman, whose name is inseparably connected with the history of the locality. He was an enterprising, energetic man, and helped to transform the wild prairies of the west into rich and highly cultivated farms. A portrait of this worthy man is presented in. connection with this sketch. Born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, June 13, 1828, he removed with his parents to Illinois during his childhood, and later went with them to Iowa, where he was reared to manhood. During the gold excitement in California he went to that state to seek his fortune, and spent several years in the mines of the Pacific slope.

      After his return Mr. McFadden engaged in farming in Iowa for a time, and in May, 1871, came to Fillmore county, Nebraska, where he secured a pre-emption claim of one hundred and sixty acres on section 10, Geneva township. He then constructed a dug-out in which he lived and kept bachelor's hall until his marriage, in the meantime developing and improving his farm. On the 28th of September, 1873, he married Miss Louisa H. Chaplin, who is also numbered among the pioneers of the county. She was born in Highland county, Ohio, a daughter of Reuben and Mary (Barr) Chaplin. Her parents were also natives of the Buckeye state, and in 1857 removed to Iowa, locating in Marion county, where Mr. Chaplin died more than thirty years ago. His widow is still living at an advanced age and resides in Jasper county, Iowa. Mrs. McFadden has been a resident of Fillmore county since 1871, having removed to this place in March of that year, in company with her uncle, James A. Barr. They pre-empted adjoining claims of one hundred and sixty acres each in West Blue township, and on the division line they exected (sic) a small frame house of two rooms, the lumber being hauled in wagons from Lincoln, fifty miles away. This was the second frame house built upon the prairie. Mrs. McFadden lived upon her claim until her marriage, and in the meantime made a number of improvements on it. She afterward traded it for one hundred and sixty acres of land on section 4, Geneva township, adjoining the farm on which she now resides. She experienced many of the hardships and trials of pioneer life, but also retains many pleasant memories of the friendly relations and genuine hospitality which prevailed among the early settlers.

      Mr. McFadden continued to devote his energies to agricultural pursuits, until his death, which occurred July 22, 1895. He wrought a great change in the appearance of the farm, the raw prairie being transformed into rich and fertile fields, giving promise of abundant harvests. Substantial buildings were erected, and all the accessories of the model farm were added. He was energetic and progressive, and his well directed efforts brought to him a comfortble (sic) competence. He was a public-spirited citizen, interested in all that pertained to the general welfare, and in his death the community mourned the loss of one whom they had learned to respect and honor.

      Mrs. McFadden still resides on the homestead and oversees the operation of her fine farm of three hundred and sixty



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acres. In this she is ably assisted by her only son, Charles, who was born August 19, 1878, and is active in the operation of the fields, largely filling his father's place in the care of the property. Both Mr. and Mrs. McFadden were among the early members of the Methodist Episcopal church in Fairmont, and Mrs. McFadden still retains her connection therewith. 

Letter/label or barACOB LABART.--The sturdy German element in our national commonwealth has been one of the most important in furthering the substantial and normal advancement of the country, for this is an element signally appreciative of practical values and also of the higher intellectuality which transcends all provincial confines. Well may any person take pride in tracing his lineage to such a source and, our subject can do this. He is himself a native of the fatherland, where he was born March 7, 1847, his parents being Conrad and Elizabeth Labart, the latter a daughter of George West. The father emigrated from Germany to America in 1853, and on the 1st of January, 1854, arrived in Portsmouth, Ohio, where for ten years he followed various occupations that would yield him an honest living. Having in that time acquired some capital, he then purchased a farm on the Ohio river in Sciota county, Ohio, there carrying on agricultural pursuits until his death, which occurred in 1886, at the age of sixty-three years. His wife is still living on the old homestead at the age of eighty-four.

      Jacob Labart was seven years of age when he came with his parents to the new world. In the fall of 1867 he left his father's home and went to Illinois, securing work as a farm hand four miles from Lincoln, that state. He worked for two years, receiving twenty-three dollars per mouth (sic) the first year, and twenty-five dollars the second. At the age of twenty-two he married Eliza Jane Willis, daughter of William and Mary Willis, the wedding being celebrated October 9, 1869.

      Mr. Labart then rented a farm and met with fair success in its operation, but hearing of the new state beyond the Missouri river, he sold everything that he could not load in a two-horse wagon and started for Nebraska. After traveling four weeks he reached Walnut Creek, in Seward county,, and there left his wife and one child, while he continued on his way to Fillmore county, where he took a homestead and erected a sod house. He then returned for his family, who were ensconced in the new home October 15, 1871, and he at once began breaking prairie and transforming the wild land into richly cultivated fields. When his house was finished and his family installed therein, he had only a five-dollar bill remaining. This he loaned to a man more needy than himself, it being returned to him after twelve months, having been passed from man to man until it finally came back to him in the condition of Franklin's rolling stone, "having gathered no moss." Mr. Labart remained on his farm in Fillmore county until February, 1878, when he sold and came to York county, purchasing one hundred and sixty acres of land on section 28, Henderson township. He paid half down, the remainder being due in five years. He still owns that land, which has been converted into a valuable farm.

      In March, 1881, Mr. Labart was called upon to mourn the death of his wife, who died leaving three children. After a year he married Adell Scovell, who was born December 10, 1852, daughter of A. E. and Avilla Scovell. This marriage occurred March 12, 1882. By the first marriage there were five children, two yet living: John Lewis, who operates the home farm and who married Rosa Davis, by whom he



has one child, Floyd; and Mary, wife of Arthur Dixon, by whom she has two children. By the second marriage of Mr. Labart there were also five children: Iva J., Jacob R., Harry E., Otis and Avilla.

      Our subject continued his farming operations until 1892, when he traded one of his farms for a hotel in Lushton. Becoming weary of the hotel business, however, he afterward traded that property for a dwelling, and about the year 1897 established a lumber-yard, which he has since conducted with good success. He is very energetic and industrious, and his persevering and well directed efforts have brought to him a gratifying competence. In politics he has been a stalwart Republican since casting his first presidential vote for General Grant. His last vote was cast for Major McKinley. His wife belongs to the United Brethren church, and both Mr. and Mrs. Labart are people of the highest respectability, having the warm regard of many friends. 

Letter/label or barMITH RODMAN, one of the most reliable and highly respected business men of Goehner, Seward county, Nebraska, was born in the state of New York, June 16, 1860, and is a son of Hiram and Ethalinda A. Rodman, also natives of New York. As far back as the family can be traced its members have followed agricultural pursuits. When our subject was fourteen years old his parents removed to eastern Iowa, where they lived for several years, and then bought a farm on Goose Lake, Clinton county, that state. In 1872 they came to Nebraska, and in Seward county the father selected the east half of the northeast quarter of section 6, precinct K, which he still owns.

      Our subject assisted his father in the improvement and cultivation of his land until his marriage, which was celebrated in the city of Seward, October 2, 1884, Miss Charlotte Griffin becoming his wife. Her father, Joshua Griffin, was born in Maryland, of Welsh parentage, while her mother, who bore the maiden name of Mary Ann Long, was born in New Brunswick, of Irish parentage. They became residents of Seward county, Nebraska, in March, 1881. To our subject and his wife have been born two children: Smith Earl, now thirteen years of age, and Irving, five. They are bright, intelligent boys, in which the parents take a just pride, and are being provided with good educations, Mr. Rodman believing in giving them the best opportunities, within his means, of improving themselves both mentally an physically.

     The spring after his marriage Mr. Rodman rented an eighty-acre farm south of the present town of Goehner, but after operating it one year he removed to the city of Seward in March, 1886. Here he began work at the carpenter's trade, which he followed for a few months, but finally becoming weary of town life he removed to his father-in-law's farm, which he conducted for the remainder of the year. In 1887 he commenced farming on land belonging to his father, and successfully engaged in its cultivation for four years. He then moved to the northwest quarter of section 9, precinct K, where he also followed agricultural pursuits with marked success from 1891 until August, 1898. Desiring to change his occupation and having been warmly recommended by a business friend, one of the elevators at Goehner was entrusted to his care. His services here command a fair salary, for faithfulness, honesty and industry are the cardinal points in all his dealings with the public. He is a strictly temperance man, having never drank a dram of whisky or brandy, or emptied a glass of beer, and his course through life has ever been such as to commend him to the confidence and esteem of all with whom he has come in contact.

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