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the care and management of stock, and general farm work.

In Nebraska City, on the 6th of March, 1888, our subject was united in marriage to Miss Bertha Reese, a lady of remarkably happy disposition, of good education and innate refinement, who will, doubtless, under the merciful preservation of life, give color and brightness to all the coming years. This lady was born on the 31st of January, 1860, while her parents were residents of Lake County, Ill. There she was educated and brought up. Her father's business relations were those of a dairyman and wholesale shipper of milk, the greater part of which commodity went to Chicago. Mrs. Barkhurst did not come to Nebraska until after she was of age.

Our subject and his wife are clever, intelligent and active members of society, moving in the best circles thereof, and everywhere assured of the most cordial welcome, being well and favorably known and respected, not simply because of their family relations, but also their own sterling worth. They are members in good standing of the Lutheran Church. In matters of political economy and civic interests Mr. Barkhurst is a thorough Republican, and it is not at all improbable that the future history of Gage County will bear upon the roll of its prominent and honored citizens the name of John F. Barkhurst.

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Letter/label or doddleEHEMIAH E. BURGESS, who by reason of his success as a general farmer and stockraiser, is favorably known throughout the county, is the owner of a splendid farm comprising 160 acres of super-excellent land for such purposes, partly owing to the fact that its natural situation and inter-resources tend to make it more fertile for crops, and super-productive of grasses, the very opposite of ligneous, such indeed as would be fully appreciated by the stock, and tend to increase rather than depreciate their market value.

 Our subject came to this county and settled in Grant Township in 1867, and has since continued a resident thereof. In that journey he was accompanied by his father, and settled upon section 34 from which he removed in the year 1877 to his present home. He was born in Dover Township, Racine Co., Wis., upon the 18th of August, 1850, and is the youngest son of Nehemiah and Sophia (Woodward) Burgess, natives of York State and Vermont respectively. Shortly after their marriage at Kenosita in 1843, Mr. and Mrs. Burgess, Sr., settled in Racine County, Wis., where most of their children were born.

In 1867, as above stated, the father of our subject, accompanied by those of his family who remained at home, migrated to this State, whither two of his sons had already come and had made their home. When at the age of fifty-seven years Mr. Burgess, Sr., was removed from his family by death in 1877, at his home in this county, after an attack of paralysis. He had been a hard-working, industrious and frugal farmer, an excellent and loyal citizen, a consistent member of the Church of God, and a stanch friend of the Republican party. His wife is yet living and resides with her children; time weight of sixty-seven years is on her head and proves well-nigh too much for her strength. The little while between the parting of husband and wife and their eternal reunion sometimes appears to be narrowing to a span's length.

Until he was twenty-two years of age our subject remained with his parents, their support and consolation. In 1872, upon the 31st of March, he was united in marriage with Miss Rosa Comstock, who was born in Michigan on the 10th of June, 1854, to Jonas and Catherine (Ruthruff) Comstock. Her father died when about twenty-seven years of age, during the infancy of Mrs. Burgess. He was a native of New York, but was for some years a resident of Branch County. Mich., where he died. Her mother died in Belvidere, Neb., in the spring of 1880, aged fifty years. Their daughter Rosa was educated in time schools of Branch County, where she was born, and came to Nebraska in 1871. To her there have been given three children, viz: Edmund M., Gertrude M. A. and Bertram (twins), the latter being now deceased.

Mr. Burgess is a strict temperance man and all earnest advocate for Prohibition principles. It is his ambition to see these principles obtained and to do all in his power to that end. His political sympathies, sentiments and efforts are entirely sym-







phonious with the third party, although formerly, before he was enlightened to its truths, he usually voted with the Republican party, from which he had the moral courage to sever himself when the brighter illumination of truth showed him a better way. He is identified with the A. O. U. W., and is a highly respected member of the Lodge at DeWitt. He is a recognized friend of every enterprise for the public good, and is one of the much valued citizens of his township.

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Letter/label or doddleLFRED R. MORRIS. It were hard to decide of this vast country which State were best, even if such a thing were possible; but it is certainly within the bounds of truth to say that the State of Ohio is one of the grandest and best, and equally true is it that Hamilton County, of that State, contains within its borders some of the prettiest and richest scenery in the State. At Carthage, in that county, was born, in the year 1811, Mr. C. P. Morris. As a young man, he became the husband of Miss Achsah Nicholls, a native of the same county. They are at present residing in Logan County. Ill. They became the parents of seven children. Among these was our subject, who was born in Ohio, Dec. 21, 1852.

The boyhood of our subject was spent between attendance at school and helping his father, who utilized his developing strength and expanding mental powers in the multifarious exigencies incidental to daily life and labor upon the farm. He continued to live at home until he was twenty-two years of age, and then devoted four years to learning the blacksmith's trade, only to continue it for one year. Next he spent two years in the lumber trade, and not without success. At the close of that period he commenced farming on his own account, and has since made it his chosen occupation.

 In 1876 Mr. Morris was united in marriage with Miss Ada Earnheart, at Conover, Ohio, on the 2d of January. This lady is the daughter of Henry and Rhoda (Moiver) Earnheart, natives of Warren County, Ohio. There have been born of this union two children, Nelson W. and Hattie B., to grace and bless the home of our subject, who are at once the pride, joy and hope of their parents.

After his marriage our subject commenced farming in Miami County, Ohio, and continued in the same with increasing prosperity for about three years, and in 1883 came to this county and followed the same occupation upon land then purchased, and since that time has, by his untiring industry and indefatigable labor, been enabled to acquire considerable property and to lay the foundation of a competency that will remove the necessity of further labor when such shall have become too heavy a burden.

In 1887 our subject was elected Supervisor, and the following year Assessor, the duties pertaining thereto being performed in each instance in a manner entirely complimentary to Mr. Morris. He is quite active as a member of the Prohibition party, and is a worthy member of the Masonic fraternity. In the Universalist Church Mr. and Mrs. Morris find their religious home, and are among its most energetic and constant members.

The gratifying success that has crowned the efforts of the life of our subject is the more noticeable and praiseworthy because of the few opportunities afforded him in the earlier days of that training and other help that are sometimes considered absolutely indispensable to start in life and after success. In the ease before us the subject is one of that class of whom many worthy representatives are found in the West, which are perhaps best designated by the term of self-made.

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Letter/label or doddleOHN PALMER was born on the 14th of October, 1842, in St. Joseph County, Ind., and is a son of Elias Palmer, a native of New York State, who had moved to Fremont County, Iowa, in the year 1847, when the country was but sparsely inhabited with white people. They came to Otoe County, Neb., in 1854, and settled among the Indians and wild animals. The brother of our subject, David Palmer, settled on Plum Creek, Liberty Township, in 1854, being one of the first settlers of this county, and after spending a number of years here, he unfortunately met







his death by drowning in the Blue River, near Barnston, on the 26th of June, 1876, while fishing with a seine.

Our subject came with his father's family to this county in 1859, and settled on Plum Creek with his brother David, where the father died in February, 1866. In the fall of 1863 our subject went 100 miles further west to the Little Blue River, and built two trading ranches on the overland stage road, being in company with his brother-in-law, Joseph Eubank, and family. On the 7th of August, in the year following, they were surprised and attacked by a band of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians, who killed Mr. Eubank, his father, four brothers and one sister, and carried away the wife and two children of William Eubank, and another child, a nephew of Mr. Eubank.

While the Indians were engaged in this terrible massacre, our subject was in the field making hay with Fred Eubank, and while the former went to the spring for a drink of water, the Indians came into the field and attacked young Eubank, killing him and taking his scalp for a trophy. On the return of our subject to his work the fearful sight met his view, and subsequently finding the fearful condition into which the family had been plunged, he ran half a mile to the house, seized his sister, and took her a short distance to where a train was corralled. thus only being able to save her life. The Indian villains returned in the night and destroyed all their property, our subject and his sister being the only two who escaped from a family of thirteen persons, seven of whom were murdered and four taken into captivity.

Those members of the family who had been carried away were terribly beaten and ill-treated by the Indians, who afterward traded them to some United States troops. The troops being informed of the manner in which these unfortunate people had fallen into the hands of their persecutors, and hearing all of the terrible story of the massacre, seized the seven Indians and hung them without trial--a fitting punishment for their atrocious deeds. After the Indians' raid our subject was entirely without property, having lost all he owned, except the clothing he had on in the field. His sister was also reduced to penury, and she had to work out for two years in order to support herself and her child. She afterward married Joseph Adams, and now lives in Gunnison City, Col., surrounded by all luxuries that wealth can procure.

Our subject married, March 27, 1866, Charlotte A. Cain, a daughter of Nathaniel D. Cain, of Liberty. In the fall of the same year he homesteaded 160 acres of land on section 22, Liberty Township, which he has since made his home. He has had a family of seven children, six of whom are living, namely: Joseph, William, Mary L., Sylkerk, James and Rhoda N. Since he took up 160 acres of land under the Homestead Act, he has added to his possessions, having worked his own way upward, a step at a time, and is now the owner of 236 acres of good land, which he devotes to the purposes of farming and stock-raising. Compelled through misfortune to make a second start in life, he has done admirably well, and is worthy the esteem of his neighbors for the splendid example of self-reliance and integrity which he has given.

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Letter/label or doddleOHN BARRATT. The stock farm of this gentleman, which is situated upon section 29 of Grant Township, is one most worthy of remark, our subject being recognized as a leader in his branch of business. Although giving some attention to grain farming, his specialty is in raising Poland-China hogs, in which he is more than usually successful. His farm includes 200 acres of super-excellent land for his purpose, and lies upon either side of the Turkey Creek, and his entry is the twenty-ninth upon the books of the township.

In October, 1862, our subject entered the United States Service as a member of the 2d Nebraska Cavalry, and participated with the regiment in the battle of Whitestone Hill, but chiefly fought in minor engagements and skirmishes on the frontier. He received an honorable discharge in December, 1863, and afterward returned to his home. He became a member, when in Nebraska, of the Territorial Militia, and was elected Orderly Sergeant of Company C. Capt. White, of Pawnee City, was with the militia for six months, and through the







suppression of the Oak Grove ranch massacre. Our subject escaped unhurt throughout the whole of his military career. Once more returned to his home, he devoted himself to his farm. Although not an extensively wealthy man, he has acquired considerable property, whereas when he began life in this State he had little over $l to his name.

John Barratt, Sr., the father of our subject, was an English farmer and blacksmith, of Somersetshire, where he lived and died. He had married an English lady, also born in his native shire, whose maiden name was Uriscilla Barratt, and who is yet living in the same county, and has reached the advanced age of eighty-one years. The parents of our subject were both members of the Church of England, and brought up their children in accordance with the same tenets. Our subject is the younger of two sons born to his parents, this event occurring on the 5th of December. 1837; his brother William is a farmer in Somersetshire. John, our subject. was brought tip in the old English home, received his education in the parish school, and then worked upon the home farm until he was in his nineteenth year; then, in 1856, he emigrated and settled in Ohio, then in Wisconsin, and came to Gage County, Neb., in 1858. He became acquainted with his wife in Saline County, and was there united with her in marriage on the 17th of March, 1867. The maiden of his choice was Ann Wheeler, who was born in London, England, on the 1st of November, 1840, and is the daughter of Charles and Anna (Pierce) Wheeler. Her father, who is by occupation a tailor, resides in Wiltshire, England, and has reached the advanced age of seventy-eight years. Her mother departed this life in that county in 1888, being seventy-one years of age.

 Mrs. Barratt was the eldest of six children, of whom three were sons. One son is deceased; two of the daughters are residents of Wiltshire, the remaining three of Nebraska. She came to the United States in the company of an uncle and aunt, with whom she made her home in this State. She has become the mother of six children, of whom five are living, and busily engaged in the common school procuring an education which may serve as a basis of operations though life. Their names are as follows: William, Ella, Robert, George and Harry. Nellie is deceased.

Mr. and Mrs. Barratt continue to attend the Episcopal Church, and are instructing their children in that faith. As a family, they are most highly esteemed, and are counted among the elite of local society. Our subject has for a long time been a very active worker in connection with the schools, and is one of the old officers of the district. He has always been a strong member of the Republican party, and one of its firm friends and adherents.

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Letter/label or doddleELSON ADAMS. The chance traveler who might have found his way in the spring of 1857, by some chance of trapping, hunting or exploration, beyond the confines of settlement, and in what is to-day known as the Nemaha Valley, would have seen in that part included in Adams Township. something that looked like the beginning of a house, but knowing that no settlers were in the neighborhood, would be at a loss to understand the meaning thereof, until they chanced to notice, stretched between two of the saplings, a tablet of bark, upon which was inscribed, "John O. Adams claims this tract of land this 30th day of March, 1857." John O. Adams, the first settler in Adams Township, was the father of our subject, and this was the first claim made, the first house erected, the first farm laid out, its acres the first broken in the township, and for quite a large distance around.

Our subject is the son of the above veteran pioneer, whose farm was situated upon section 26, and claimed as noted above. He was born in New Jersey. His mother, whose maiden name was Letitia Harris, was a native of Kentucky. The parents of our subject were married in Dubois County, Ind., and settled upon a farm in the district. He was quite prosperous in his chosen calling, and found opportunity to see well started in life, and help them in the same, his eight children, who are pursuing honorable and more or less prominent careers. The family started from the old Indiana home on the 5th of September, 1856, for the Great West, then in a very wild condition. Their household goods were all securely packed in two two-yoked







wagons, and thus they journeyed westward, uncertain whether to make their home in Kansas, Nebraska or elsewhere. They, however, proceeded to Atchison County. Mo., where lived a brother of Mr. Adams. Here they secured that rest and recuperation that were required for themselves and their cattle after their journey.

The family arrived upon the 20th of October at Mr. D. L. Adams', and leaving his family there the father of our subject early in the spring started out to prospect in Kansas and Nebraska. Owing to the trouble of the two States he did not stay long in Kansas, feeling satisfied it was not the place to settle at that time. He therefore journeyed North; he crossed the Missouri River at Brownville, and then followed the Great Nemaha River to its source, and was fascinated by the appearance of the land and satisfied that it was the place for him to make his home. He therefore took the course above mentioned in order to secure the claim. After having thus set his mark upon it he started back with all dispatch to his family, and as soon as the grass had grown sufficiently to feed their oxen on the road the family started again, and did not stop until they reached their claim; then they erected their house with all speed, living in the wagons until they were prepared to take up their quarters in the more substantial building, which was made of rough-hewn logs with a finishing of mortar for the chinks.

About the 17th of May, the same month in which the family occupied their house as above noted, our subject began to break upon his farm, which he had pre-empted. This was the first claim under that law, and included 160 acres. In after years this was added to until he was the owner of 700 acres. Mr. J. O. Adams, after a very happy and prosperous career, departed this life on the 24th of December, 1887, at the very advanced age of eighty years. His wife, who died on the 21st of November, 1867, was at that time fifty-five years of age. Their family numbered seven children, whose names are as follows: Nelson, Nancy, Isaac, John Q., Leander, Naomi and Myarra. They have grown up and entered into honorable and remunerative spheres in life.

Our subject was born on the 24th of February, 1841, at the home in Dubois County, Ind., about two miles from Jasper. He was brought up on his father's farm and began to work at an early age, being occupied in such employments as grubbing, clearing, chopping, etc. Educational facilities were conspicuous either by their entire absence or marked inefficiency, and had he trusted to these alone he would not have the mental development he possesses to-day; but his own ambition led him, in spite of every opposing element, to gather for himself a good practical and fairly complete English education. He was about sixteen years of age when time above mentioned migration to Nebraska took place; then, as he says, he was promoted to be "general aid-de-camp and boy of all work." In this he continued, gradually working up until practically the management of the farm was in his hands. He remained at home until he enlisted in September, 1864, in Company C, of the 2d Nebraska Regiment, for a term of four months, or during the war. He was sent to Ft. Kearney, thence to Blue Station, where they wintered. In January, 1865, the entire company received honorable discharge, and he returned home and remained there until his marriage the following year.

The lady then chosen by our subject was Miss Lurana Hoskins. The young couple settled upon their own farm, but were destined to enjoy their companionship for but a short season. Four months and eight days after marriage our subject was a widower, his wife dying at the age of eighteen years. This blow seemed to strike at the very source of his being, and in a moment overthrew the plans, desires and hopes of a life. In April, the same year, in order to recover somewhat the effects of this bereavement, he made an overland trip to Colorado, traveling West 500 miles from Nebraska City, and thence to Denver. He did not make his journey very lengthy, but was much benefited by the change, and returning home again set to work.

In 1868 our subject entered into a second alliance, the name of the lady being Miss Lydia J. Wilson. Her parents were natives of Crab Orchard. The wife of our subject was born in Putnam County, Ind., in the year 1840. She was about twenty-five years of age when she came to Nebraska, where she met our subject, with time foregoing result. She has presented our subject with two children; only







one, however, survives. Their names were Nancy E. and Letitia O. Nancy is happily married to Mr. C. B. Ashcraft, a farmer of Adams Township; Letitia died at the age of ten months, in the year 1872.

In 1870 Mr. and Mrs. Adams went on a trip to Kansas and decided to locate in Wyandotte County, remained about one year and then returned, but still own about eighty acres of land. Our subject has the honor of being the oldest living pioneer of the Nemaha Valley, and has watched its development and growth with much pride and satisfaction. He states since the country has been settled up and so many thousands of forest, shade and fruit trees have been set out and have flourished, that the climate has changed and become more pleasant in every way; that the rainfall has increased, both in amount and frequency, and this, coupled with the cultivation, has very much increased the productive value of the soil. His own farm is an illustration of the amount of labor and money that may be put into a farm. As already stated in substance he has brought his property from the original condition of the prairie; the improvements thereon include a good dwelling-house, well situated, commodious in its arrangement, and pleasant in its surroundings of wide-spreading shade trees, that offer in hottest summer a cooling retreat, orchards that in their season extend ripe and luscious fruity invitations; barns, stable, granary and all the necessary out-buildings for such a farm.

The religious home of our subject and wife is in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. Adams is one of the charter members of the church at Adams, and also Trustee. They are considered by those acquainted with them as among time most honorable and worthy in time communion. Our subject has for eight years served as School Director, Treasurer of his district for two years, and has also been called upon to serve on the Grand Jury. His political sentiments have always been decidedly and strongly Republican, and although by no means an offensive partisan, he is certainly a stout defender of his opinions, and active in the dissemination of what he believes to he right political principles and true political economy. He is a man of character, intelligence and mental power, and has learned how to utilize the same honestly, vet fearlessly. In all business transactions his integrity is beyond question, and in every circle and relationship of life he and his most estimable lady are accorded the sincerest respect and highest esteem. As an instance and case in point we would refer to one expression of this, viz: that the township and city have both been named after the family.

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Letter/label or doddleE. MUDGE is a well-known young farmer and stock raiser who is residing on section 14, Elm Township. His grandfather, Edward, and his grandmother, Katherine (Woolhy) Mudge, were natives of Kent, England. The father of our subject is also a native of England, and of him and his wife there will be further mention made in this ALBUM. When the parents decided to come to America they took passage on the sailing-ship "Webster" on the 23d of March, 1855, and our subject was born on the 23d of April on board the ship.

Our subject remained with his father until he reached the age of twenty-one years, after which engaging in mining pursuits, for three years he traveled extensively throughout Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. In the year 1879 he came back to Nebraska and bought his present farm in Elm Township, which he has very much improved, and on which he has set out 200 fruit trees.

On the 4th of July, 1881, Mr. Mudge was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Mathias, at Fairbury, Jefferson Co., Neb. The father of Mrs. Mudge is William H. Mathias, a native of Westmoreland County, Pa., and the mother is Caroline (Kennedy) Mathias, born in Somerset County, Pa.; they were married in Woodford County, Ill., where the father was engaged in farming. In 1872 the family moved to Jefferson County, Neb., there being five children in the family--John W., Elizabeth B., Henry, Jr., Benjamin F. and Mary F.

The wife of our subject was born on the 9th of March, 1856, in Woodford County, Ill., and having received a very good education she was engaged for several months in teaching school. She is the mother of two children--William Ray and Muriel




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