NEGenWeb Project
Kansas Collection Books

Andreas' History of the State of Nebraska

Butler County
Produced by John McCoy.

Part 1:
Geographical and Physical Features | Early History
Part 2:

Organization | County Statistics | Official Roster
Schools | Railroads | Historical Incidents

Part 3:
David City: Schools | Religious | Societies | The Press
Part 4:
Biographical Sketches
Part 5:

Ulysses: Local Interests | Banks | Schools | Press | Societies | Religious | Biographical Sketches
Part 6:
Rising City: Biographical Sketches
Part 7:

Brainard: Biographical Sketches
Bellwood: Biographical Sketches
Miscellaneous Biographical Sketches

List of Illustrations in Butler County Chapter

Part 2


At the time of the organization of Butler County in 1868, the following county officials were declared elected: H. Pepper, Clerk; David R. Gardner, Treasurer; C. C. Loomis, Probate Judge; William Butler, Sheriff; J. A. Taylor, Coroner; W. T. Richardson, Surveyor; James Green, Henry Wilson and David Reed, Commissioners. The county seat was located at Savannah.

The first meeting of the Commissioners was held at Bone Creek Schoolhouse October 21, 1868. The only business transacted was the election of a Chairman, which resulted in favor of James Green. The board then adjourned until the following week. At the adjourned meeting, the county was divided into three Commissioners' districts, as follows:

No. 1--Commencing on the east line of the county at the center of Township 14, on the east line of Range 4 east, running west twelve miles to Range 2 east; thence north to the county line and the south boundary of the Platte River shall be the north line of this district. No. 2 shall commence at the center of Township 14, Range 2 east, thence running west to the county line; thence north to the south boundary of the Platte River. No. 3 shall commence on the east line of the county, at the center of the east side of Township 14, Range 4 east, running west to the county line, twenty-four miles; thence south to the southwest corner of the county, nine miles; thence east to the southeast corner of the county; thence north to the point of beginning.

It was also divided into precincts, as follows: Precinct No. 1 shall be called Bone Creek Precinct--begining at the northeast corner of the county, running south to the southeast corner of Township 15, Range 4 east; thence west to the southwest corner of Township 15, Range 2 east; thence north to the county line. Precinct No. 2 shall be called Pepperville Precinct--commencing at the southeast corner of Township 15, Range 2 east, running west to the county line. Precinct No. 3 shall be called Ulysses Precinct--commencing at the northwest corner of Township 14, Range 1 east, running south twelve miles; thence east twelve miles; thence north twelve miles; thence to place of beginning. Precinct No. 4 shall be called Oak Creek Precinct--commencing at the southwest corner of Township 13, Range 3 east, running east twelve miles to the county line; thence north twelve miles; thence west twelve miles; thence south twelve miles.

The County Clerk was ordered to give notice that a special election would be held November 3, 1868, for the election of "one Commissioner for District No. 3, and all precinct officers that may be needed," and an order was passed to employ L. Gerrard as counsel for the county. At a meeting of the board held at the house of County Clerk Pepper, January 4, 1869, the bonds of the several county officers were presented and approved. F. C. Johnson was appointed and commissioned to lay out a county road, commencing at the east line of the county, at the terminus of the Saunders County road, thence running westward by Skull Creek and Bone Creek branches to the northwest corner of Section 7, Township 16, Range 2 east, following, as near as practicable, the old Government trail. At a regular meeting of the board, held at the house of Commissioner Wilson, it appears upon record that W. T. Richardson was appointed County Surveyor, and an order passed to attach Polk County to Butler for revenue purposes. The next meeting of the Commissioners was held at the house of David R. Gardner, the County Treasurer, April 19, 1869. The important business at this meeting was the equalization of the assessment rolls, and the records show that the board "set three days with open doors for that purpose," and then adjourned to meet July 5 at the county seat.

The first tax was levied in 1869, the rate being 6 mills on the dollar, for county and State tax, and $3 on every quarter-section of land for highway purposes. Total amount of State and county tax, $5,399.98. At a meeting held December 20, an order was passed for the construction of a court house, at Savannah, and, at the next meeting, held January 4, 1870, the name Savannah was given to the county seat.

At the first division of the county into precincts, it was divided into quarters, each quarter comprising a precinct. April 16, 1872, it was divided into nine precincts, each eight miles square, except where the indentations of the Platte form the north boundary. These were named, commencing at the northeast and proceeding west, then east, etc., as follows: Linwood, Savannah, Pepperville, Summit, Center, Oak Creek, Richardson, Ulysses and Reed. It was again re-arranged, on March 3, 1874, by calling each surveyed township a precinct, except Richardson, which included two townships, but has since been subdivided. Their names at present are as follows, following the order indicated above: Platte, Linwood, Bone Creek, Savannah, Alexis, Summit, Olive, Franklin, Skull Creek, Oak Creek, Center, Reading, Reed, Ulysses, Plum Creek and Richardson. The origin of the several names is as follows: Skull Creek from the stream of that name, which heads in this precinct, and which derives its name from the fact of the many skulls that are found scattered along its banks. Bone Creek, Plum Creek and Oak Creek derive their names from the streams that pass through them. Reed is named in commemoration of David Reed, one of the pioneers of the county and among the first to take up land in this precinct. Pepperville, in honor of Hubbel Pepper, an early settler. Richardson, in honor of W. T. Richardson, an early settler and the first County Surveyor. Linwood, from the presence of linn or basswood. Savannah, for an Eastern town of that name. Summit, for the former residence, in Wisconsin, of C. C. Cobb, Esq., who established a mercantile business there in 1872. Center, for its geographical position. Reading, for a Michigan town of that name. Ulysses, in honor of Gen. U. S. Grant.

The Commissioners' Districts are necessarily three in number. They were at first formed by setting off a strip on the southern portion of the county, eight miles wide, and dividing the residue of the territory by a north and south line running centrally through it. October 1, 1872, the boundary lines were changed by dividing the county into three equal divisions, each eight miles wide, the dividing line running east and west. They are now numbered First, Second and Third, commencing at the north division.

During the years 1869, 1870, 1871 and 1872, Savannah was the county seat, after a protracted and bitter struggle, involving four elections, two under the general statutes and two by special act of the Legislature, of which the second was discovered to have been held without legal authority. At the fourth and final counting of the votes, it was decided to remove the county seat to "the east one-half of the southwest one-quarter, and the west one-half of the southeast quarter of Section 19, Town 15 north, Range 3 east, of the 6th Principal Meridian, by a majority of thirty-nine votes. The new town was named David City, in honor of one Mr. Davids, a friend and relative of Mr. William Miles, patron and part owner of the site. The ground was immediately surveyed into blocks and lots, a neat and commodious court house erected, to which the records of the county were at once removed, on the 6th of August, 1873.

David City (the "s" is dropped for convenience), soon became a stirring town--the metropolis, business, political and social center of the county.


At the first assessment of taxes, in 1869, the valuation of the county was fixed at $1,546,716, which included Polk, Hall and Merrick Counties, then unorganized. In 1870, $1,540,526; 1871, $973,814; 1872, $1,059,388; 1873, $942,168; 1874, $1,380,834; 1875, $1,192,644. For the year 1876 it aggregated $1,397,867, which included the following amounts: Number of horses, 1,915, value, $77,349; mules, 168, value, $8,320; cattle, 3,704, value, $51,987; sheep, 266, value, $296; hogs. 2,575, value, $5,600. Number of acres of land returned for taxation, 269,199, value, $1,223,925; town lots, 534, value, $14,230; money invested in merchandise, $11,780; in manufacturing, $4,335. At this date there were about 10,000 acres of trees, fruit and forest, growing in the county, for which the sum of $75,240, was exempted from the total valuation of the county according to a very sensible legislative enactment of the State. This does not, however, accurately indicate the extent of the forest tree planting at this time, as only a certain proportion are returned by the Assessor. The grasshopper raid of 1874 made slight inroads upon the personal property valuation, and the valuation per acre of lands was considerably reduced; otherwise, the figures for 1876 would have largely exceeded those given. The valuation per acre of lands was formerly uniform at $3 or $4; but in 1875, a more equal and legal system was inaugurated by which the land was estimated in accordance with its bona fide values.

Since 1876, Butler County has gone steadily on in the march of progress. She has withstood prairie fires that swept almost everything out of existence in their fiery track, devastating insects, terrible snow storms, hurricanes, and numerous other disheartening misfortunes, inasmuch that it is truly wonderful how she managed to escape and become successful in her pursuit for prosperity and wealth. In 1859, there were scarcely a dozen settlers in the limits of the county, and the majority of these were scattered along the old wagon trails to the mountains.

In 1868, when the first election was held, sixty-eight votes were polled, which would indicate a population of about two hundred. In 1870, the population had increased to 1,260; in 1873, to 3,800; in 1874, to 4,440; and in 1876, the Assessor counted 4,695. The following is the census returns for 1875 and 1876, by precincts:

     PRECINCTS.     1875.     1876.
Linwood . . . . . .  724       753
Bone Creek . . . . . 404       385
Savannah . . . . . . 239       256
Pepperville . . . .  357       358
Summit . . . . . . . 200       220
Olive . . . . . . .  350       277
Franklin . . . . . . 357       428
Skull Creek . . . .  390       416
Oak Creek . . . . .  245       262
Center . . . . . . . 269       258
Union . . . . . . .  284       252
Beading . . . . . .  315       349
Read . . . . . . . . 182       198
Ulysses . . . . . .  107       216
Richardson . . . . .  57        67
                   _____     _____
     Total . . . .  4480      4695

In 1881, the assessed valuation, as returned to the State Auditor, is placed at $2,084,854.36, and includes the following amounts:

Horses of all ages 4,598, value $120,593; average value, $26.22. Neat cattle of all ages, 9,101, value $90,700; average value, $9.96. Mules and asses of all ages, 311, value, $10,441; average value, $33.57. Sheep of all ages, 1,951, value, $2,950; average value, $1.54. Hogs of all ages, 10,254, value, $16,037; average value, $1.57. Carriages and wagons, 1,424, value, $19,800; average value, $13.90. Value of railroad property, $245,337.36; total value of personal property, $647,167.36; number of acres of improved lands, 118,286 83/100, value, $573,026.83; average value, $4.84. Number of acres of unimproved lands, 217,129 29/100, value, $772,114.58; average value, $3.09. Total number of acres of all lands, 335,416 07/100, value, $1,345,141.41; average value, $4.01. Number of improved village lots, 557, value, $75,163; average value, $134.94. Number of unimproved village lots, 1,227, value, $17,383; average value, $14.16.

Estimating all lands at a value of $7 per acre, and all personal property as assessed at one-third of its actual value, and the total actual value of the county reaches $4,382,275.57. Number of acres of land under cultivation, 47,767, including corn, 39,335; oats, 4,852; barley, 717; meadow, 153; flax, 3,122; rye, 896.

Number of fruit trees, 17,944; number of forest trees, 1,700,537; number of grape vines, 493.

Population as returned by the several Assessors as follows, for the year 1881: Platte, 400; Linwood, 755; Bone Creek, 561; Savannah, 408; Alexis, 553; Summit, 380; Olive, 470; Franklin, 1,374; Skull Creek 730; Oak Creek, 525; Center, 502; Union, 541; Reading, 764; Reed, 387; Ulysses, 531; Plumb Creek, 70; Richardson, 83; total, 9,043.


The following is the roster of county officers since its organization, in 1868. During the years 1868 (fractional)--1869--Clerk, H. Pepper; Treasurer, D. R. Gardner; Probate Judge, C. C. Loomis; Sheriff, William Butler; Superintendent, H Pepper; Coroner, J. A. Taylor; Surveyor, W. T. Richardson; Commissioners, James Green, Henry Wilson, David Read.

1870-71--Clerk, H. Pepper; Treasurer, D. R. Gardner; Probate Judge, B. O. Perkins; Sheriff, H. Garfield; Superintendent, E. G. Paige; Coroner, J. A. Taylor; Surveyor, W. T. Richardson; Commissioners, James Green, Henry Wilson, David Reed.

1872-73--Clerk, H. Pepper; Treasurer, E. M. Perkins; Probate Judge, B. O. Perkins; Sheriff, James Darnell; Superintendent, W. J. Evans; Coroner, S. L. Brown; Surveyor, W. T. Richardson; Commissioners, Henry Wilson (1872), David Reed, A. F. Coon, F. P. Steele (1873).

1874-75--Clerk, C. C. Cook; Treasurer, W. M. Bunting; Probate Judge, J. M. Wilkinson; Sheriff, P. Murphy; Superintendent, W. J. Evans; Coroner, S. L. Brown, Sr.; Surveyor, W. T. Richardson; Commissioners, A. F. Coon (1874), F. P. Steele, Adam Hall, T. B. Myers (1875).

1876-77--Clerk, C. C. Cook; Treasurer, W. M. Bunting; County Judge. A. J. Evans; Sheriff, Abel Hill; Superintendent, A. J. Combs; Coroner, S. L. Brown; Surveyor, P. C. Patterson; Commissioners, Adam Hall (1876), T. B. Myers, William Butler and Adam Hall.

1878-79--Clerk, B. F. Rolph; Treasurer, Frank Davis; County Judge, A. J. Evans; Sheriff, Abel Hill; Superintendent, A. C. Fenderson; Coroner, G. H. Peebles; Surveyor, W. T. Richardson; Commissioners, Adam Hall, William Butler, A. H. Jones, J. M. Palmer (1879).

1880-81--Clerk, B. F. Rolph; Treasurer, Frank Davis; County Judge, George Osterhout; Sheriff, Abel Hill; Superintendent, R. V. Beach; Coroner, S. L. Brown; Surveyor, M. Grove; Commissioners, A. H. Jones, J. M. Palmer, P. B. Royce, J. T. McKnight (1880).

1882--Clerk, James Evans; Treasurer, Frank Davis. County Judge, George Osterhout; Sheriff, James Fenlon; Superintendent, M. C. Delaney; Coroner, S. L. Brown; Surveyor, M. Grove; Commissioners, J. M. Palmer, J. T. McKnight, George Hahn (1881).


The first public building of any description was erected in the summer of 1867, on Section 4, Township 16, Range 3 east. The material used in the construction was small, unhewn logs, the roof, made in the popular style of the times, was poles covered with prairie sod, its dimensions about 10x12. In this unpretending structure the first school was taught, Miss Ada Vanderkok, now Mrs. J. V. Wood, being teacher, and the juvenile members of the families of D. R. Gardner, James Blair, William Butler, James Green and Mrs. Solomon Garfield, the pupils. It was a subscription school, and the wages were set at $20 per month.

In 1869, the present school system was inaugurated, and under the supervision of County Clerk Hubbel Pepper, Superintendent of Public Instruction (ex-officio), nine school districts were organized. At the first enumeration it was found that there were but 153 of school age in the county. In 1870, the pupilage had increased to 204, and during this year the first apportionment of the State School Fund was made, Butler County receiving as her share $1,109.50. The following statistics will show the number of school age, number of school districts and yearly apportionment:

Number of Districts. Appointment. Children of School Age.
5,015 79

From the above it will be seen that the county has received $49,873.35 from the General School Fund of the State.

In 1867, the county owned one log schoolhouse. In 1876, it possessed fifty-four, of which number forty-eight were neat and commodious frame structures, well finished, and valued at $27,718.99, or an average of about $577 each; forty of the number, also, had furniture and apparatus averaging in value $180. There are now in the county one brick, one sod and seventy frame schoolhouses, valued at $43,266.48. Sixty are furnished with patent desks and apparatus. The total expenditures for the year ending 1881, were $33,463.54; total receipts, $38,710.96; total indebtedness, $13,005.77. Seventy-three male and forty-eight female teachers are employed, with a per cent of scholarship that will compare favorably with that of the older counties. As yet the county has but one graded school, which is located at David City. The first teacher's certificate was issued to Allen Jilson October 29, 1869. Charles Miller received the second November 6, 1869. The next on record are L. H. Slater, November 23; F. G. Gilbert, December 9; Jefferson Winship, December 20; J. W. Smith, December 24, making a total of six for the year.

The first school district was formed December 5, 1868, in the vicinity of Savannah, and comprised Sections 1, 2, 3, 10 and 11, Town 16, Range 3 east, and Section 36, Town 17, Range 4 east. District No. 2 was formed March 2, 1869. In educational progress, Butler County is somewhat behind her sister counties, but when we consider her youth, the progress she has made is quite wonderful, and her future looks bright and promising.


The first proposition for the purpose of constructing a railroad through the county came from the Burlington & Missouri Railroad in Nebraska, in 1872, proposing to build a road from Lincoln to Columbus via Ulysses and David City, asking as a consideration the county's coupon bonds to the amount of $80,000. It was submitted to the people at a special election of this year, and carried by a majority of the votes. A preliminary line was surveyed, but the promised road was never built. In 1874, a company, under the name and style of the Blue Valley Railroad Company, offered to construct a road from Lincoln to Columbus through David City and Ulysses, asking the county's bonds to the amount of $150,000. This proposition was submitted to the people at the general election of 1874, and lost. In 1876, Supt. S. H. H. Clark, of the Union Pacific Railroad, offered a proposition to the voters of Butler County, in which he agreed to build a road from a point at or near Valley Station, on the Union Pacific Railroad, through Wahoo and David City, to a point west in Polk County, to be known as the Omaha & Republican Valley Railroad. The county voted to issue its bonds to the amount of $119,000, and the road was completed and in operation early in the following year.

The last proposition came from a corporation known as the Lincoln & Northwestern Railroad Company, who agreed to build and operate a road from Lincoln to Columbus, touching Butler at the towns of Ulysses, David City and Bellwood. To this corporation the county issued its coupon bonds to the amount of $50,000, and precinct bonds to the amount of $50,000, making a total of $100,000. The road was completed and in operation during the month of February, 1880, and a short time after was practically sold to the Burlington & Missouri Railroad, the transfer being a lease for ninety-nine years.


In 1858, Mahala City was made the county seat by a special act of the Legislature. What vaulting ambitions and prospective fortunes were bound up in this little parchment city may never be known, as the writer cannot ascertain that it was ever tangibly located.

In 1859, an attempt was made to effect a county organization, in which the following named persons participated; John Beecroft, Thompson Bissell, William Bissell, James Blair, Solomon Garfield, William Earl, J. W. Seeley. Messrs. Simpson, Beardsley and McCabe, but this organization wag never perfected.

August 3, 1860, a patent was issued following the first entry of land, which was made by Josiah W. Seeley, by the "laying" of a military land warrant, issued to one William Bryant for services in the war with Mexico. With the exception of an entry on the fractional southeast quarter of Section 6, Township 16, Range 3 east, by S. D. Shinn, no other portions of Butler County land was subject to individual ownership by patent, deed or otherwise, until the summer of 1867.

In 1867-68, the famous speculator's tract was entered.

In 1869, the United States Government granted 97,000 acres, or nearly one-fourth of the entire county, to the Union Pacific Railroad Company.

In 1872, 5,760 acres lying south of the Blue River were granted to the Burlington & Missouri Railroad Company. Some years since, an occasional one of the immense Texan or Cherokee herds were driven as far east as Butler County, passing to and fro, from creek to creek, to the imminent danger and frequent destruction of the small but precious corn fields and gardens of the settlers. Upon a well remembered day in the summer of 1872, these chivalrous, freckled-faced sons of the sunny South, were put to utter rout and confusion, since which time the voice of the Texan herder has been heard in the land no more forever. An intensely dismal, blinding fog had succeeded a fearful night storm, which had the effect to disperse and stampede several thousand steers over the prairie and hills in every conceivable direction. The word was passed from mouth to mouth, steeds were caparisoned and mounted, and then, in the short battle of a few hours, ensued such a scene of carnage as one could scarcely wish to witness. Several hundred of these lank, long-horned, fierce-natured creatures, were ruthlessly slain, butchered and packed away in numerous and various receptacles, the flesh to be eaten, and the hides to be cut into lariats at some more convenient season. In valley, on hill, and all over the plain they fell at the hand of the exasperated settler. Arrests, prosecutions and threatenings followed in due course of time, but for some occult reason no one was so unfortunate as to be convicted, and although the strict morality of the proceeding is questionable, it had the effect to rid this territory of an abomination, both as regards the fierce, unruly nature of the cattle, and certain disagreeable propensities of the herders.

In 1871, Henniganville, afterward "Ollie" (better known as Section 6), planted her towers on a high hill, two miles westward from Old Butler Center, and lifted up her wee small voice in solicitation of the suffrages of the people touching the relocation of the county seat, becoming, indeed, a formidable rival in that long-to-be-remembered contest, and receiving at one time (November 5, 1872) a majority over all other points; but the election proved an egregious blunder on the part of the officials and everybody else, arising from the misconstruction of an ambiguous clause in the statute then in force concerning the relocation of county seats. This bloodless war brought out many amusing incidents, and not a little rancor of feeling grew out of it. Many will recall the sudden appearance of a train of wagons a mile or so in length (the train) slowly creeping over the table-land in the direction of Savannah. This cavalcade of determined citizens proved to be a deputation in the interest of Section 6, proceeding to that town in quest of the archives of the county. A big council followed, resulting in a truce, though many months ensued before all were convinced that there was no "job" in the transaction. The first session of the court was held in the court house at Savannah, May 20, 1871. As may be supposed, the docket was not cumbered to any great extent with the names of litigants and attorneys. One case only was brought forward for trial, and was in reference to the murder of one Edward McMurty, a citizen of Pepperville Precinct, by some Pawnee Indians. For some fancied insult to certain members of their tribe, who were in the habit of begging and pilfering among the settlers on the south side of the Platte, a party of the red-skinned assassins lay in wait for their victim at a secluded spot on Stage Company's Island, and, upon his appearance, riddled him with bullets and arrows, dragged his body into an out-of-the-way place and anchored it out of view in a water-hole by means of a forked branch. A change of venue was had on account of some supposed unfriendliness of the relatives and neighbors of the deceased, and the culprits were placed in the Omaha jail. Several trials were had, but the county officials ultimately wearied of drawing warrants for the payments of huge imaginary doctor's bills and other manufactured expenses on behalf of the prison officials; the incarcerated braves were turned loose to join their dusky comrades in further noble and humanitarian exploits.

April 10, 1871 and April 14, 1872, are remembered as the days of the great snow-storms, the like of which have never been known in this locality in all the annals of time. The former was the more tempestuous of the two, and of only twenty-four hours' duration, and no great losses were sustained. The latter raged for three days and nights. Out of the north-northwest came the hurricane, with terrible violence, laden with snow-flakes as fine as flour, penetrating the slightest crevice and searching out the remotest corner.

Stables and shelter that were ordinarily sufficient for their desired purposes were filled more compactly and solidly than could have been done by the hand of man. Many of the settlers led their cattle and horses into their dwelling houses, and saved a portion of their stock, which otherwise must certainly have perished.

In many cases, farmers found it impossible to go to stables but ten or twelve rods distant, and upward of three hundred head of stock perished from suffocation and exposure.

The year 1872 is marked as the event of the great prairie fire. It was the famous fire year, when the very atmosphere seemed laden with flame, and destruction was on every hand, as Chicago, Peshtigo and many other unfortunates can testify. The loss in Butler County was variously estimated at $15,000 to $20,000--a loss tenfold more damaging and felt more keenly, since it destroyed the pioneers' all. It is almost heart-breaking and discouraging in the extreme to look at a blackened home, the desolate and melancholy remains of one, two or three years of patient, hard, earnest toil, in garnering, saving and suffering upon the prairie, to be landed, as it were, back upon the bed rock of original pioneer helplessness and destitution, after having labored, in season and out of season, to obtain a genuine start on the road to competency and comfort; is one of the sufferings of life that men find it hard to "silver o'er" with aesthetic philosophy and "try, try again" maxims. Happily, a recurrence is now rendered impossible by the improvement made and the greatly extended cultivated area. Several sweeping conflagrations have spread terror among the settlers of Butler County in years gone by, but this was the most notable of all. It occurred in the month of October. This great fire came into Butler County from Polk County, and swept south, thence north, and finally south again, literally singeing over the entire county, reaching out its fiery tongues over impassable spaces, jumping hedge rows a hundred feet in width, and licking up in its unimpeded course hundreds of acres of standing corn, more than five hundred bushels of wheat, and other grains in granary and stack, 200 cords of wood and poles, 1000 tons of hay in stack, and much farm machinery, while scores of horses, cattle and hogs were roasted alive in pens and stables, and even in the fields. None but its victims can picture or describe the want, suffering and misery that it entailed.

The grasshopper plague and scourge of 1874 was also an occurrence which marked an era in the history of this county. The memories of these scenes are still painfully fresh in the mind to-day--how countless millions of lean, hungry insects came down in great, dark clouds, without so much as a whisper of warning; how, save the ripe and half-harvested wheat, they dev ured everything green reared by the hand of man; stripping the leaves from the trees, both great and small; laying bare as bean-poles the thrifty, half-grown corn-stalks; necessitating the absolute slaughter of the swine, both lean and fat; how the famous "aid society" came, with its remarkable exhibitions of disgusting selfishness and open-hearted generosity; well-paid chicanery, and faithful labor unrequited and unthanked; how the ensuing winter wound its dreary length along, while the unfrequent driblets of "relief coal" were lengthened out by the substitution of hay-weeds and corn-stalks; how, eagerly, upon the advent of spring, the first approach of the tender grass was watched and waited for in behalf of the starving horses and cattle, and the first fruits of the garden and field by their bean and meal fed masters. And then followed the abundant rains, the luxurious grass and the marvelous prodigality of vegetable growth, insomuch that corn in six months fell from $2 to 15 cents per bushel. May the recollection of these historic scenes and incidents of woe and lamentation grow dimmer and yet more dim as the months and years recede, and never be quickened by a similar event.

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