28, 1864, at St. James Hall, London, largely through the efforts of Karl Marx, and was known as the First International.

"The First International survived for only nine years. In 1872 Marx withdrew his support because the anarchists were becoming too powerful and he was bitterly opposed to them, as they were against any system of government including that proposed by Marx.

"Second International.—The Second International was formed at Paris in 1889, six years after Marx's death, but it was based more firmly on his doctrines than the First International, and became the fountainhead of international socialism.

"The World War led to a temporary disruption of the Second International, as the socialists, with few exceptions, put patriotism before their party doctrines. The Second International is still in existence but was repudiated by the extreme radical element, of which Nicholai Lenin, a Russian disciple of Marx who had been exiled for revolutionary activities, was the leader.

"Abdication of the Czar and formation of provisional government—There is still considerable misunderstanding regarding the part played by the Communists in forcing the abdication of the Czar in March, 1917, and in the creation of the provisional government. The fact is that the Communists played practically no part in the overthrow of the Czar's government. When Czar Nicholas II abdicated he did so to the representatives of the Duma, elected by the people. At that time Lenin was in exile in Switzerland and Trotsky was living in the Bronx, N. Y., and most of the other leading Communists were either in exile from Russia or in the prison camps of Siberia.

"No matter how justifiable a revolution against the Czar's regime may have been, no credit can be claimed by the Communists in order to secure sympathy from liberals throughout the world. The provisional government, composed of liberal members of the Duma and headed by Prince Lvov, took over the control of Russia. The United States was the first nation to recognize the provisional government of Russia, which was organized on the same democratic principles as our own.

"Overthrow of the Russian Government.—One month after the establishment of the provisional government, the German general staff sent Nicholai Lenin and a score of his radical followers in a closed car from Switzerland through Germany back into Russia. This was a master stroke of strategy, as Lenin rapidly undermined the loyalty of the war-weary troops by promising a separate peace, bread, and a division of the lands among the soldiers and peasants. With the failure of the Russian Army offensive in Galicia the difficulties of the provisional government increased. Kerensky, who was a weak and vacillating leader, was afraid to arrest the revolutionary Communists, or to call upon the army commanders for assistance.

"Third International.—The Third or Communist International was organized by Lenin at Moscow in March, 1919, to carry out the revolutionary purposes of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. It is the revolutionary international of the working class and there is no denying the fact that it has tremendous influence among the more advanced workers in every nation in the world. It had its beginning in 1915 and 1916 at conferences in Switzerland of the radical groups of the Second International. At these conferences Nicholai Lenin first came into prominence as the international revolutionary leader of the left-wing socialists or Communists.

"In January, 1919, the Russian Communist Party, sent out a call for a congress to be held at Moscow to form the Third or Communist International. This invitation was sent to some 40 Communist, revolutionary, and left-wing socialist groups throughout the world.

"Thus, the Communist International, known in Russia as the Comintern, came into full-fledged being at Moscow in March, 1919, and has ever since been the medium of instigating class warfare and social revolution in all countries, in order to establish a world Soviet Union, with the capital at Moscow.

"Principles of the Communist International.—The main principles of the Communist International are as follows: Overthrow and annihilation of so-called capitalist governmental power and its replacement by proletarian power: dictatorship of the working class; confiscation of property; arming of the proletariat; armed conflict by the proletariat against capitalism; no compromise with socialists remaining in the Second International.

"The main objective of the Communist International is to promote world revolution, in order to bring about a world-wide union of Soviets, or dictatorship of the proletariat, with the capital at Moscow.


That communism has thrived since the publication of the Fish Report is obvious, although the total number of communists is known only to the leaders and possibly only to Moscow. The party claims to have over 500,000 "sympathizers," who are bound to it by organizations, not "subsidiaries" of the Party, but usually controlled by communist leaders. Among these organizations are:

International Labor Defense, which takes care of the legal defense of pickets and agitators.

The International Workers' Order, a fraternal insurance society.

Trade Union Unity League, the communist "Federation of Labor."

Workers' International Relief, which furnishes food and other necessities to communist strikers and hunger marchers.

Workers' Schools, which give instruction in communistic theories. These schools are established in all of the principal cities of the Union, the New York school having an enrollment of nearly 8,000.

United Farmers' League, spreads revolutionary aims of Communists among the farmers by sending agitators into drought areas where conditions of suffering, distress and hunger are the worst.

All-American anti-Imperialist League, not a Communist group but used by them for the purpose of spreading vicious propaganda in Mexico and in South American countries against the United States.


In addition to the regular Communist Party of America, there are many other communist organizations, the majority of whose leaders were expelled from the regular Party because of their devotion to Lenin rather than to Stalin. Other groups separated from the regular Party because their leaders do not feel that the doctrines and tactics of this organization are sufficiently radical. All factions, however, expect to unite when the moment is deemed ripe for the big "putsch."

Among such groups are:

The Communist Party of the U. S. A. (Opposition), (Lovestonites). Leader, Jay Lovestone, formerly a leader in the regular Party. He was re-elected regular Party secretary in 1929 by a vote of 92 delegates, against 8 delegates for Foster. Reports are that a cablegram from Moscow voiced Stalin's objection to Lovestone, whereupon the delegates obediently elected Foster. Lovestone is editor of Workers' Age, and author of, Coolidge Program, Capitalistic Democracy and Prosperity Exposed.

Activity: Lovestonites led the first strike under the N. R. A. Its members head Local 22, International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.

Doctrine: Same as that of the regular Communist Party; disagrees only in tactics.

American Workers' Party (Musteites). Leader, A. J. Muste.

Doctrine: Dictatorship of the proletariat, to be acquired by revolutionary means. This organization supplied the militant leadership for the Toledo strike in 1934.

Communist League of America (Trotskyites), formerly the International Left Opposition. Leader, James P. Connor, a founder and leader of the regular Communist Party.

Doctrine: Same as regular Party.

Activity: Credited with leading the Minneapolis truck drivers' strike, 1934.

Communist League of Struggle (The Weisbordites). Leader, Albert Weisbord; Phi Beta Kappa, Harvard Law '24; editor of Class Struggle.

Activity: Weisbord led the great Passaic, N. J., textile strike, 1926.

The Wattonites, who have made Marxism a religion, believing that Karl Marx was the medium chosen by Jehovah to revive the Talmudic tradition.

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