CONTENTS
PART I

DISCOVERY AND ACQUISITION
THE SPANISH AND FRENCH PERIODS AND THE
PURCHASE

CHAPTER I. THE SPANISH DISCOVERIES . . . .3

What the Louisiana Purchase was. Early Spanish explorers. Discovery of the Mississippi. Pineda, Cabeza de Vaca, Coronado, De Soto. and Docampo. The Spaniards first in the field. Their weakness in colonization.

CHAPTER II. THE FRENCH IN LOUISIANA . . . 21

Nicolletís early expeditions. Saint Lusson claims the West for France. Marquette and Joliet explore the upper Mississippi. La Salle descends to the mouth. The French claim to Louisiana. Tonty and other pioneers. The founders of New Orleans. The search for a way to the western ocean. Le Sueur and other explorers. The Verendryes see the Rocky Mountains.

CHAPTER III. THE FRENCH IN THE EIGHTEENTH
     CENTURY. . .34

The founding of New Orleans. Extent of French possessions. The beginnings of St. Louis. The gateway of Louisiana. Downfall of French power. Louisiana ceded to Spain. American and English explorations. Oregon not included in Louisiana.

CHAPTER IV. THE AMERICAN WESTWARD
     MOVEMENT. . .45

Advancing beyond the Alleghenies. Settlement rather than exploration or exploitation. Experiences of the pioneers. Their way to the sea blocked by Spanish control of the mouth of the Mississippi. How the Spaniards ruled New Orleans.

CHAPTER V. LOUISIANA'S CRITICAL PERIOD . . 54

France tries to regain the West. Genetís intrigues. Attitude of England and Spain. Napoleonís designs. Talleyrandís plans for a colonial empire. Louisiana ceded to France. Napoleonís plans checked by Toussaintís rebellion in San Domingo.

CHAPTER VI. LOUISIANA AN ACTIVE ISSUE . . 64

The East slow to see the facts. Foresight of Washington, Jefferson, and Hamilton. A critical period. spanish exactions. The river closed. Popular agitation. The West ready for war. Jefferson resolves to buy New Orleans and the Floridas. Monroe appointed commissioner. Livingstonís work in Paris. Talleyrandís startling proposition. How Napoleon made his purpose known. A family quarrel in a bath-room.

CHAPTER VII. THE PURCHASE ARRANGED . . . 76

Closing the bargain. The terms of payment. What was bought. Questions as to West Florida. The news in the United States. Federalist opposition. Debates over the right to buy and rule foreign territory. The treaty ratified. Provisions for government.

CHAPTER VIII. TRANSFER TO THE UNITED STATES. . . 86

Louisiana still in Spainís hands. Delivery to France. Cession by France to the United States. A country without government. Congress gives the President power. Importance of the precedents. The territory divided. A last foreign invasion.

PART II

THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION

CHAPTER IX. EXPLORING LOUISIANA . . .97

An unknown interior. Jeffersonís early interest in exploration. Ledyardís vain attempt. Jefferson selects Lewis and Clark. Who they were. Their instructions. The uncertainty as to their route.

CHAPTER X. PREPARING FOR THE JOURNEY . . 106

An uninformed Spaniard. A company of picked men. Some curious supplies. The journal of the expedition.

CHAPTER XI. STARTING FOR THE WILDERNESS. . .111

Trappers and Indians. Across Missouri. The first sight of buffalo. Turning northward. A council with the Indians near Council Bluffs. An odd way of fishing. A country full of game.

CHAPTER XII. IN SOUTH DAKOTA. . .20

A haunted mountain. Among the Sioux. A curious fraternity. Some new animals. Trouble with the Tetons. The first meeting with the grizzly bear. Reaching the Arikara Indians. The approach of cold weather.

CHAPTER XIII. AT THE MANDAN VILLAGES . . 128

The winter camp. Hunting the buffalo. The journey onward. Finding the Yellowstone River. Adventures with grizzly bears. Hunting in Montana.

CHAPTER XIV. ACROSS MONTANA. . .7

Discovery of the Musselshell. The first glimpse of the Rockies. A buffalo charges the camp. A narrow escape. At the Great Falls of the Missouri. A difficult portage. Reaching the Three Forks of the Missouri. In an unknown country.

CHAPTER XV. THROUGH THE ROCKIES TO THE
    PACIFIC. . .146

Ascending the Jefferson. Reaching the Great Divide. Some friendly Indians. Sacajawea meets old acquaintances. Hardships and disappointments. Struggling across the mountains. Among the Nez Percés. On toward the sea. Passing the cataracts of the Columbia. The first glimpse of the sea.

CHAPTER XVI. ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE. . .159

The winter camp. Peculiarities of the Clatsop Indians. A scarcity of supplies. Turning homeward. Surmounting the cascades. Journeying by land. Troublesome Indians. Living on dog flesh. A search for their horses. Indian cooking. Suffering of the explorers.

CHAPTER XVII. ACROSS THE MOUNTAINS . . . 171

A rough mountain road. Dividing the party. An adventure with a grizzly. Fighting with Indians. An accident to Captain Lewis. His indomitable courage. Passing the Great Falls of the Missouri. Lewis overtakes Captain Clark.

CHAPTER XVIII. CAPTAIN CLARK'S ADVENTURES. . .178

Crossing the Yellowstone. The last glimpse of the Rockies. Buffalo and bears. Reaching the Missouri. Attacked by mosquitoes. Pryor loses the horses. Bitten by a wolf. The whole party reunited.

CHAPTER XIX. ON THE WAY HOME. . .185

At the Mandan villages again. Big White accompanies the explorers. Colter remains in the wilderness. His subsequent discovery of Yellowstone Park. Parting with the faithful squaw. Descending the river. The arrival at St. Louis. The news in Washington. The later life of Lewis and Clark.

PART III

THE EXPLORATION OF THE WEST

CHAPTER XX. PIKEíS EXPLORATIONS. . .199

Ascending the Mississippi. A second expedition westward. Hostile Spanish influence. Into Colorado. The first glimpse of Pikeís Peak. On the upper Arkansas. Disappointment and privation. In Spanish territory. Captured by the Spaniards. Pikeís return and death.

CHAPTER XXI. ROUTES OF EXPLORATION . . . 208

The great water ways. Importance of the Missouri. The Santa Fé, Overland, and Oregon trails. The fur trade the chief industry. Its effect on exploration.

CHAPTER XXII. TYPICAL PATHFINDERS . . . 226

Trade seeking the Northwest. Hunt and the "overland Astorians." Ashley and Wyeth. Bonnevilleís journeys. Explorations by Frémont.

PART IV

THE BUILDING OF THE WEST

CHAPTER XXIII. A FORMATIVE PERIOD . . . 241

Influences of the westward movement. A time of expansion. Development of the Mississippi Valley. Influences upon upper Louisiana. Types of the middle period. The soldierís work in the West. Labors of missionaries. Whitmanís journey and its real purpose.

CHAPTER XXIV. THE COMING OF INDUSTRIES . .255

The search for mineral wealth. Louisiana ignored for California. Later developments. The day of the "pony express." The great cattle industry. Opening of the interior by the first transcontinental railroad.

CHAPTER XXV. PERMANENT OCCUPATION . . . 27

The Free Soil issue. Kansas and Nebraska. Distribution of public lands. Louisiana in the Civil War. A glance at later development. Political and economic consequence of the old Louisiana Purchase.

APPENDIX I. . .287

Treaty of Purchase between the United States and the French Republic. A Convention between the United States of America and the French Republic. . .293

APPENDIX II. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE OF TO-DAY. . .296

Its vast area. Statistical summary of the states and territories formed from the Purchase. Fifteen millions of people. Wealth four hundred times the purchase money. The empire which we gained.

LOUISIANA. . .296

ARKANSAS. . .300

COLORADO. . .303

INDIAN TERRITORY. . .307

IOWA. . .309

KANSAS. . .2

MINNESOTA. . .316

MISSOURI. . .320

MONTANA. . .323

NEBRASKA. . .325

NORTH DAKOTA. . .328

OKLAHOMA. . .130

SOUTH DAKOTA. . .333

WYOMING. . .335

INDEX. . .339




List of Illustrations and Maps


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