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History of Lycoming County Pennsylvania
edited by John F. Meginness; 1892







WITH the increase of population it was found necessary to organize a new township out of territory taken from Muncy. This was done by a decree of the court of Northumberland county at February sessions, 1786. This was nine years before Lycoming county was erected. The territory lay between Loyalsock and Lycoming creeks, and extended northward for an indefinite distance. Excepting along the river, and for a mile or two up the creeks, there were scarcely any settlers at that time. The northern part of the township was an extremely wild and almost impenetrable region.

Loyalsock is a corruption of the Indian word Lawi-Saquick, signifying the middle creek, because it lies midway between Muncy and Lycoming creeks. Lycoming creek, the boundary line on the west, is corrupted from Legaui-hanne, signifying a sandy stream. Heekewelder says the Delawares invariably called it by this name. On Scull's old map of Pennsylvania it is written Lycaumick, which was the first transition from the original.

The township of Loyalsock has lost much of its original territory in the last hundred years, and as it stands today it is the seventeenth in size and contains 15,360 acres. According to the census of 1890 the population was 2,498. At least two-thirds of this population practically belongs to the city of Williamsport, as the streets in many instances extend beyond the limits.

The township is bounded on the east by the borough of Montoursville, Fairfield, and Upper Fairfield townships; on the north by Eldred and Hepburn, on the west by Lycoming and Old Lycoming, and on the south by the city of Williamsport and the river.

Geologically the township consists of Clinton shales (No. V) in the southeast corner adjoining Loyalsock creek, which are succeeded by Lower Helderberg limestone (No. VI) in Lime ridge, above which occurs the Oriskany sandstone, the formation running parallel with Lime ridge at Sand Hill. Above this occur the Chemung measures, (No. IVIII) which, with various subdivisions, form the surface rocks north of Williamsport, extending from the quarry in Portage (VIII e) on Mill creek to McClintock's quarry on Lycoming creek, in the front of which the inferior measures show all along the higher ground on the back streets of Williamsport, while back of this line of foot hills the upper series of the measures (VIII f) occurs to the north line of the township, where a red belt of rocks occur supposed to be Red Catskill (No. IX). There are observed a number of good exposures for flagstone in the township, and fair flag and curbstone are got out at McClintock's quarry, and good building stone (VIII d Genesee) at the Poor House new quarry.

Lime ridge, two miles east of Williamsport, affords a good opportunity for burning cheap lime for building and agricultural purposes. Many more quarries might be opened in the township, as the formations exist here that are in adjoining townships where they are worked, and there is no reason why they should not be operated.

There are many opportunities for those interested in the study of the rocks to see them in good exposures on Loyalsock and Lycoming creeks, while fossils will be found at many places.

The surface of the township is rolling, and quite hilly in some parts; much good bottom land is found on Lycoming and Loyalsock creeks, and along the river east of the city. Truck gardening is extensively carried on both east and northwest of the city. Three-fourths of the territory embraced in the city of Williamsport was taken from Loyalsock township; the balance was taken from Old Lycoming, west of the creek.

The eastern and western borders of Loyalsock township are washed by two large creeks, and a few small streams drain its interior. They are Mill creek, which empties into Loyalsock; Bull run, Miller's run, and Wallis run, all of which empty into the river. The latter, which in late years has come to be known as Grafius run, flows through a portion of Williamsport, and on account of its extensive watershed, often overflows in the city and causes much trouble. On the west side are Log run and Mill run. The latter runs by Ball's Mills; both empty into Loyalsock.

A Township Dispute. - In 1810 a dispute arose between Loyalsock and Muncy townships, which is best explained by the following from the court records:

Thomas Caldwell, Samuel Torbert, and Samuel E. Grier, the persons appointed by an order of this court of May sessions, 1810, by virtue of a petition of sundry inhabitants of Loyalsock township being presented complaining that Loyalsock township line as it is now established takes in all Loyalsock creek where the public road crosses the same, and that they are burdened with keeping all the fordings in repair, and therefore praying the court to take such measures that the middle of said creek be made the line of the two townships, made report as follows: "Having met and viewed the said creek they do in their judgment report that the center of the large creek called Loyalsock be the boundary line between the two townships of Loyalsock and Muncy." Whereupon the court upon due consideration confirmed the said report, and ordered it to be entered of record.

September Sessions, 1810.

Ellis Walton, Clk.

Early Officials and Assessments. - The records show that the township officers for Loyalsock in 1787, the first year such officers were chosen, were as follows. Constable, Uriah Barber; overseers: Amariah Sutton, John McAdams; supervisors: William Winter, William Hammond; viewers of fences: Samuel Sutton, William Jones. In 1789 they were as follows: Constable, William Winter; overseers: William Hepburn, William Winter; supervisors: William Winter, William Hammond; viewers of fences: William Jones, Samuel Sutton.

For 1788 the assessor reported 23,146 acres taxable in Loyalsock township, sixty-one horses, and sixty-four cows. Valuation, 1 9,079; State tax, 50 3s; county tax, 24 10s. Six single men were reported. The assessment book for 1796, the first year an assessment was made after the organization of the county which is still in an excellent state of preservation shows the following: Amount of seated land tax, 8,326 7s 1d; unseated, 3,230 10s. Samuel Harris was assessor for 1796-98, and William Benjamin for 1799. For 1800 Joseph Williams was assessor and Michael Ross and Joseph Grafius collectors; 1801, Thomas Smith, assessor, Jacob Grafius and John Updegraff, collectors; 1802, Robert McElrath, assessor, John Wilson and Daniel Tallman, collectors; 1803-04, Robert McElrath, assessor, Peter Vanderbelt and William F. Buyers, collectors; 1805, Thomas Huston, assessor, Apollos Woodward and Roland Hall, collectors; 1806-07, Thomas Huston, assessor William Landon and William Vanhorn, collectors. The borough of Williamsport was formed in 1806, but it does not appear that any assessment was made before 1808.

The Early History of the township has been given in the chapters describing the troublous times from 1770 up to the close of the Revolutionary war, and need not be repeated here. The names of the first permanent settlers will be found in the enumeration lists for 1796 and 1800, printed in Chapters XIV and XV. Many of their descendants are found here today, and they occupy lands first improved by their ancestors. Those who may be classed as pioneers were here as early as 1768-69. The unfortunate Peter Smith settled near the mouth of Loyalsock about 1768. Then came the Covenhoven and Benjamin families. All suffered cruelly at the hands of the savages a member of the latter, with one or two of his family, being burned to death. Samuel Harris also settled early at the mouth of the creek and took an active and leading part in the early struggles.

McKinney Iron Works - Between 1825 and 1830 Isaac McKinney and his son William established a forge on Lycoming creek and called the place Heshbon. In 1885 or 1836 they built a furnace, and in 1841 a rolling mill. Iron ore was brought from Centre county by boats to Jaysburg, where it was unloaded and hauled to the furnace. Ten-plate stoves were made at the furnace for several years. Finally the original founders of the works failed, and the creditors undertook to run them, but the experiment did not prove successful. William Thomas, from Coleman's, ran them a short time. Samuel Bayington then became lessee and operated them up to 1865, when they were so badly damaged by the great flood of that year that they never were repaired. Nearly all trace of what was once a busy industry at this place has disappeared.

Saw Mills. - The following sawmills are located along the river between the eastern limit of the city and Loyalsock creek: Elias Deemer & Company, annual production 4,000,000 feet; J. B. Emery & Company, capacity 15,000,000 feet; Ezra Canfield, capacity 20,000,000 feet. The mill of Mr. Canfield stands near the spot where young James Brady was so cruelly scalped by the Indians on the 9th of August, 1778, while engaged in cutting grain on the farm of the ill fated Peter Smith.

Educational. - Loyalsock having a larger population than any other township in the county, has more school houses than any other. She has twelve, and their local names are as follows: Union, Limestone, Fairview, Mill Creek, Eagle, Heshbon, Lloyd's Addition, and Sand Hill. The report for 1891 shows an average of six months taught by seven male and five female teachers. The males received an average of $83 and the females $32.40 salary per month. Number of male scholars, 252; female, 234.

Churches. - There are three churches in the township, and a chapel, but the latter is so near the city limits that reference has been made to it in the chapter on church organizations. Near the Union school house are two churches, one of which is Evangelical Lutheran, and the other Methodist Episcopal. They are plain, unostentatious brick buildings.

The Limestone Methodist Episcopal church, located at the lime quarries near Loyalsock creek, had its beginning in a Sunday school started there in 1872. A church was built in 1888 at a cost of $1,800. It is entirely free of debt and has a membership of sixty at the present time. The Sunday school numbers 105 scholars. Charles E. Hicks, who took a deep interest in founding the school and pushing the project of building the church, is the superintendent. As there is quite a populous settlement along the base of Sand Hill and near the limekilns, this church and school are very convenient for the inhabitants and their children.

Cemeteries. - The oldest burial place in the present township was known as the Harris graveyard, at Loyalsock. When it was founded is unknown, but it must have been during the time of the Indian troubles. It is very likely that some of the early settlers who lost their lives at the bands of the savages were buried there. Samuel Harris, as has been shown in the colonial chapters, settled there very early. The graveyard was started on his farm and was, therefore, private ground, but others outside of his family were permitted to be buried there. John Kidd, the first prothonotary of Lycoming county, and the first member of the bar, died September 9, 1813, and was buried in this ground. He was a relative or close friend of the Harris family, which accounts for his place of interment.

The old grave yard was disturbed by the building of the Catawissa, branch of the Philadelphia and Reading railroad, which passed through it. The friends of many who were buried there removed their remains to what is now known as the Sand Hill cemetery, which was laid out on the hillside near by. It has been made a very handsome place for burial purposes. From its commanding position a line view of the borough of Montoursville and the valley beyond is afforded, and as the lot owners take pride in keeping the graves of their ancestors and friends in good order, it is destined to become more beautiful as the years roll on.

The cemeteries adjacent to Williamsport, which are institutions of that city, although located in this township, are properly treated in connection with that city.


This township was organized in 1804 out of territory set off from Loyalsock and called Hepburn, in honor of William Hepburn, ex-State senator and judicial administrator. It. embraced the territory now found in the township of Lewis, east of Lycoming creek, Gamble, a portion of Cascade, and Eldred. This dismemberment left the territory of the township about as found today.

Hepburn is now the thirty-fifth in size and contains 8,320 acres, with a population of 769 by the census of 1890. It is bounded on the east by Eldred, on the north by Lewis and Gamble, on the west by Lycoming, and on the south by Loyalsock. An examination of its geology shows that it consists of Chemung measures (No. VIII) located across the township in a broad belt, containing the fossil ore belt, (VIII f) while in the northern and southern parts are belts of Red Catskill (No. IX) which on the north extends against the side of the mountain, forming the lower part of the south escarpment of the Allegheny range. Many openings were made years ago on the fossil iron ore lands of P. R. Hays, Cogan Station; at the Schaffer mine, Long run, and on the lands of John Schon, Blooming Grove; James Thompson, Rock Run; Ball's estate, and John Paulhamus (Bower farm), below Hepburnville. Ore was shipped from. Cogan Station quite extensively from 1865 to 1875.

Copper ore and galena have been found at a number of places in this township (See general geological review). At all the places where iron ore has been mined are good localities for fossil shells, plates, or casts, and fossiliferous limestone.

The surface of the township is rolling, except where it adjoins the mountain. where it becomes mountainous. It contains some good farms and the inhabitants in the better parts are noted for their thrift. Aside from Lycoming creek, which washes its western border, there are no streams of any importance in the township The principal ones are Mill run and Long run, both of which empty into Lycoming. Each has several small tributaries.

An Indian Village. - When the whites first entered the valley of Lycoming creek they found an Indian village of some note about where Hepburnville now stands, called Eeltown. It is occasionally mentioned in the Colonial Records by parties pursuing hostile Indians, but it does not clearly appear why it should have borne such a peculiar name. Tradition says that Newhaleeka, who traded the Great Island to William Dunn about 1769 for a rifle and a keg of whiskey, once dwelt here, and there was a cluster of cabins about his wigwam. It is alleged that there was good fishing in the creek at this place and that eels abounded, which caused the whites to name it Eeltown. The Sheshequin path debouched from the hills through a ravine near the Indian village, and it was likely a place of some note with the aborigines.

Pioneers. - Among the early settlers on the creek may be mentioned James Thompson. He was there as early as 1784. About, 1820 he opened hotel a mile below Cogan Station, which he kept for many years. Samuel Reed built a house on the site of Hepburnville about 1800, which stood until 1874. It was the only house then between Newberry and Trout Run. In 1805 he taught a school at what is now Cogan Station, and it is said that he was the first teacher in the now township..

Peter Marshall was one of the earliest settlers within what is now Hepburn township. His father, Edward Marshall, was one of the three men employed by the Penns in the great "Indian walking purchase," which commenced September 19, 1737, (See " Indian Walk," page 92 ) in Bucks county. Peter Marshall, the youngest son of the great walker, was born in 1759. He came to Montoursville in 1788, and made his way to what is now the home of Henry Collins. From there he went to Quaker Hill, then to a point near Ball's Mills where Baltus Hensler now lives. This was in 1801, and that same year he died. His death is given in the Indian Walk," page 262, as occurring, July 25, 1803, but his descendants say the date is incorrect. Peter Marshall left two sons, John and James, and four daughters. John remained on the place where his father died, and the other settled near by. John had six children, and his brother had six also. James Marshall, youngest son of James Marshall, Sr., is still living where his father settled. His father, James, was born, January 19, 1781, and died, September 14, 1858. The descendants of Peter Marshall are now quite numerous and live in different parts of the country. It is scarcely known that their great ancestor was one of the men employed in the famous "Indian walking purchase."

Thomas Fry, son-in-law of Samuel Ball, found in Mill run a few years ago, near where it empties into Lycoming creek, a fossil stone about three and a half by one and a half feet in size, which had been washed out by a flood. It has the initials of one of the Hull family that lived near Ball's Mills cut on it, and the date "1776."

Henry Southard, who served in the Revolutionary war, settled in Blooming Grove quite early in the century. He died in the State of New York about 1840, aged one hundred and two. His wife died in 1845, at the great age of one hundred and four. Henry Southard, 2d, lived in Blooming Grove, and died there in 1870, aged eighty-four. Henry Southard, 3d, born in Blooming Grove, May 12, 1816, now lives at Wallis run, Gamble township.

The most important settlement in this township was that of the German colonists, in what is known as Blooming Grove. On the 23d of May, 1792, Jesse Willits, of Berks, obtained a warrant for a tract of land in Loyalsock township called Hopewell, containing 422 acres and 116 perches, for which he received a patent, May 21, 1795. In 1804, just about the time Hepburn township was organized, Wendle Harman arrived in this country from Germany, on the 31st of May, 1805, he purchased this land from Willis for 316 17s 6d, (See Deed Book E, page 10), for the purpose of founding a colony of his countrymen. The colonists were named as follows: John Heim, Leonard Ulmer, Gottleib Heim, Michael Bertsch, Leonard Staiger, Ferdinand Frederick Scheel, John George Waltz, and George Kiess, Sr. Although each one contributed his share towards the purchase of land, the deed was made in the name of Wendle Harman, and he was to execute a deed to each one of the party. That the contract might be clearly under-stood, as well as to protect Harman in case of litigation, they entered into an agreement in writing setting forth clearly the terms of their compact. This old instrument is still in existence in the hands of Jacob Heim, a grandson of Jacob Heim, who was one of the later colonists. The best land in the purchase cost $1.50 an acre; the second grade, $1.

John and Gottleib Heim bad been imprisoned in Wurtemberg, Germany, in 1803, on account of conscientious scruples against bearing arms. On promising to leave the country they were released. They straightway came to America, made their way to Lycoming county, and founded the settlement now known as Blooming Grove. In 1816 John Heim returned to Germany and brought out his brothers, Christian and Jacob Heim, and Frederick Schaefer. The Heims were married and had families, except John and Gottleib. They all joined the colony.

When the purchase was effected in 1805 the colonists at once went to work, built log cabins, and commenced to improve their land. The ground was covered with timber and it required much hard work to clear it and put in small crops. The outlook was not encouraging at first, but through the indomitable pluck, frugality, and industry so characteristic of the Germans, they succeeded and founded valuable estates, which are now in the hands of their descendants. The name, "Blooming Grove," originated in this way: When the colonists bad cleared their land and planted crops everything bloomed like a flower, and in the exuberance of their joy they called the place Blooming Grove!

In religious belief the colonists were Dunkards. In Germany this belief was prohibited, and they were compelled to worship in secret. They therefore sought a land of freedom where they could worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience.

Jacob Heim, 3d, whose grandfather came with the colonists, now lives on the tract of land originally bought by George Kiess, and, like his ancestor, is a leading and representative man in the settlement. Today Blooming Grove is emphatically what its name implies, and there is no thriftier or more pleasant agricultural section in the country.

Rev. Gustavus Schultze was another early minister who appeared in the German settlements. He was a Lutheran by profession and for forty years he was the only minister of that denomination in the county. Reference has been made to him in the review of Limestone township. He was born, June 30, 1779, and died at Ball's Mills, January 9, 1874, in the ninety-fifth year of his age. When a mere boy he served under Napoleon and accompanied him in his disastrous Russian campaign. He claimed to have been present and witnessed the burning of Moscow, which he described as a gorgeous yet appalling spectacle, and the lurid scenes of that night of terror were never effaced from his memory. He came to the county in 1829 as a missionary and labored faithfully until borne down by the weight of years. His preaching was all in the German language.

Ball's Mills. - This settlement has been a noted landmark for years. The history of its founder and his family may be briefly stated. John Ball came to this country from England in 1793 and settled near Hillsgrove. There he built a saw mill, but was accidentally drowned the same year while bathing. He left four children: Anne, the eldest, married a Mr. White and settled near Hillsgrove; John, the second, located at Hughesville and his descendants still live there; William was The third, and Mary, the fourth, died young.

William Ball was born, September 21, 1788, and died, July 8, 1866. He married Miss Catherine Weisel June 20, 1811. She was born, August 13, 1793, and died, December 25, 1869. They had nine children, viz: Isaac, George, John, Samuel, Elizabeth, William, Mary Anne, Joseph, and Sarah Jane. William settled at Ball's Mills some years after be was married. In 1818 he commenced to build on what is known as the "Home Site, " at Ball's Factory, and the next year be settled there. The same fall he started a fulling mill. Some years afterwards he built a clover mill and ran it four or five years. In 1838 the woolen factory was erected, and in 1840 he built a saw mill for his oldest son Isaac at Ball's Mills, two miles and a half above the "Home Site." Before this, in 1831 or 1832, he built the saw mill at the old home. He said that the clover mill paid the best of any of his investments. He owned at one time 8SO acres, but at the time of his death be only had 400, and his descendants own all of it at the present time.

Samuel Ball commenced the manufacture of grain cradles in 1847, and in 1866 he made his first shipment to St. Louis. In 1867 he built a cradle factory, and in 1868 he shipped thirty dozen. After this he always made his largest sales in the West, but he also sold cradles in smaller numbers all over the country.

Mr. Ball died in December, 1890, aged almost seventy; he was born, January 23, 1821. He passed away within sight of the house where be was born. The cradle shop of forty years ago is now a large and well equipped factory. Many of the best and most useful devices in the establishment were of his own invention. Mr. Ball served not alone his own interests during his lifetime, but faithfully served the community as well. He was a member of the school board for eighteen years, most of this time acting as secretary, and contributed much to build up the excellent public schools in the township.

A postoffice was established at Ball's Mills and called Hepburn, September 3;' 1888, and William Spotts was appointed postmaster. He still holds the office.

Cogan Valley Station on the Northern Central railroad, eight miles northwest from Williamsport, is a postvillage. The office was established March 30, 1860, and Josiah Bartlett was appointed postmaster. His successors have been Edward Lyon, appointed September 29,1869; Josiah Bartlett, February 1, 1871, and Thomas R. Winder, April 7, 1880, present incumbent.

The Crescent Iron Works, on Lycoming creek in the extreme northwestern corner of the township, were erected in 18,39 and started in 1840 by Gervis B. Manley and Warren, Edward, and Charles G. Heylmun. At first they consisted of but one puddling furnace, one heating furnace, six nail machines, and one train of rolls for making bar iron. In 1844 Mr. Manley retired and the firm became C. G. Heylmun &, Brothers. In 1852 the head of the firm died, when the firm was reorganized with E. G. Heylmun as chief. In 1853, J. W. Heylmun disposed of his interest to H. D. Heylmun, when the firm continued to 1857. Edward G. Heylmun then purchased the interest of all the heirs and became sole proprietor. In 1861 the works were enlarged and their capacity increased. The great flood of 1865 did them serious damage, but they were repaired and put in operation again. Various changes now took place, when, on March 1, 1876, Peter Herdic became interested. When he failed they passed into the hands of Hon. R. J. Walker, who operated them a short time.

The Blooming Grove Mutual Fire Insurance Company is one of the, institutions of Hepburn township. It was established September 2, 1874, for the protection of farmers. No risks are taken on town properties. J. M. Sanders is president, with Jacob Heim as secretary. The following is a statement of the standing of the company for the year ending December 31, 1891: Assets, $11, 117.33; liabilities, none; income during, the year, $1,622.89; balance on hand from former year, $29.14; expenditures and losses paid during the year, $534.70; amount of property insured, $862,006; premium notes, $43,109.78; total cash premiums and assessments received since the organization of the company to December 31, 1891, $29,954.25; total losses paid from organization to date, $23,791.11.

Education has always been carefully looked after by the people of Hepburn. Schools have existed since the beginning of the century. Today there six school houses in the township, named as follows: Klump, Ball's Mills, Factory, Hepburnville, Crescent, and Pleasant Valley. The report for 1891 shows six months taught by six male and one female teacher. They received $36 each per mouth. Number of male pupils, 100; female, eighty-one; average attendance, 138.

Churches. - Soon after settling in Blooming Grove the colonists built a log church. little better than a cabin, which served as a place of worship and a schoolhouse. Rev. Dr. C. F. Haller was the first preacher. This was about 1805 or 1806, and he continued his ministrations, until his death in 1828. About this time they built a now church, which was larger and better adapted for religious worship. After Haller's death he was succeeded by Gottleib Heim, and others, who conducted religious services and held the church together for awhile. Then Christian Heim took charge as pastor and continued as such up to 1880, when he died. There is no regular pastor now, but John Schaefer, Gottleib Heim, and Abraham Beidelapacher lead in worship and hold the congregation together. The church building of 182S, thouc,11 old and antiquated, is still standing and serves the purpose for which it was designed sixty-four years ago.

In the year 1840 Rev. Konrad A. Fleischman made his appearance in the, Blooming Grove settlement. He had ridden all the way from Reading on horseback. He followed Jacob Michaelis a young man whom he had sent over the same road from Reading as a colporteur, for the purpose of engaging in missionary work. He was warmly welcomed by the German settlers in Anthony township, Blooming Grove, and Fairfield. Dr. Fleischman had been converted nine year before in Germany, and came to America as the first Baptist missionary among his countrymen.

The Dunkards of Blooming Grove gave him the privilege of using their church for religious meetings and he labored zealously among the people. His labors were crowned with success, and on February 7, 1841, he baptized twenty-nine converts in Blooming Grove; and the same month there were baptisms in Anthony and Fairfield townships. These baptisms in Blooming Grove marked the beginning of an important religious epoch the founding of the first organized German Baptist church in America

The semi-centennial of the church has been appropriately observed in Williamsport, and at a jubilee meeting of the Eastern Conference of German Baptist churches, held Sunday, September 20, 1891, Rev. J. C. Grimmell, general secretary of German missions, delivered a sermon in which he recounted the history of the founding of the church at Blooming Grove. In the course of his remarks he showed that from this humble beginning the church had grown and prospered until today it numbers 202 churches and 16,000 members in America.

The German Baptists now have a church of their own at Pleasant Valley, situated about three miles from the Dunkard church; one in Anthony township (See sketch of Anthony), one at Fairfield Centre, Upper Fairfield township, and one on Washington street, Williamsport.

Rev. Konrad Anton Fleischman was born in Nuremberg, Bavaria, April 18,1812 and died suddenly in Philadelphia in 1867. After organizing the church in Blooming Grove he remained until 1842, when he settled in Philadelphia. He always recalled his labors among the bills of Lycoming county with pleasure. He was a man of talent; winning, affectionate, and eloquent in his discourses, and indefatigable in his labors.

In addition to the foregoing churches the Evangelicals have one at Ball's Mills, and the Methodists one at Crescent an d one at Hepburnville. The Presbyterians also have one at the latter place. It is called Lycoming Centre, and was organized in 1847. Its first elders were Isaiah Hays, Richard Hays, and Isaiah Hagerman. The present church is a neat stone building, which is an ornament to the village.


Relatively this is one of the smallest townships in the county. When a petition was filed praying for a division from Hepburn the court appointed William Fink, John Piatt, and W. R. Vanderbelt commissioners to take the question into consideration. They reported favorably and the court directed an election to be held at Warrensville, October 12, 1858 The question of division wag hotly contested, resulting in 109 votes for to ninety-one against the proposition. On the 16th of November, 1858, Judge Jordan made a decree erecting the township, and it was named Eldred, in honor of C. D. Eldred, who was then an associate on the bench. Eldred is the thirty-seventh in size in the county and has an area of 7,680 acres, with a population of 656 by the census of 1890. It is bounded on the east by Upper Fairfield, on the north by Cascade and Gamble, on the west by Hepburn, and on the south by Loyalsock. Its territory consists of a wide belt of Chemung (Nov VIII), on the south of which is a belt of Red Catskill (No. IX) extending up the mountain, with a small area in the northeast corner of Pocono (No. X) extending to the top of the mountain, forming with them a part of the south escarpment of the main Allegheny range.

On the top of the mountain there are a series of holes in the solid rocks known as "the wells," and that section is known as "The Wells mountain." These wells" are objects of much curiosity and are frequently visited by strangers and others. It is difficult to explain the cause of those holes or "wells" in the rocks. Probably the rocks were fractured, and as the overlying glacier melted, the water, carrying round stones, entered these fissures, and churning them for ages wore the smooth cavities resembling chambers, to a great depth. Evidences of the moraine may be seen on the road from Warrensville to Loyalsock running along the base of the mountain half a mile distant. The fossil ore passes through the township and exposures are plain on the opposite side of the creek. There are many exposures of the Chemung along Mill creek, and some good flagging should be obtainable. The surface of the township is quite hilly and in some parts mountainous.

The First Settlers in this township were largely Quakers, attracted by the land speculations of Robert Morris, the Haineses, and others in Muncy township. Among these settlers were the Winners, Wilsons, and Marshalls. The neighborhood of their settlement is now known by the title of "Quaker Hill." They were an industrious, thrifty class of people, and the country gives evidence of their character in its appearance.

Among some of the more modern residents of Eldred may be mentioned the following: Peter Palmer, who died in 1889, having moved to Eldred in 1817 at the age of seventeen; (William W. Eck moved there from Loyalsock in 1853;) Amos Wilson, William Manse], Joseph Winner, George Kiess, and Emanuel Kiess. J. W. Milnor, Esq., born in Bucks county, moved to Eldred when about twenty-one years old. He is now in his seventy-third year.

Streams and Mills. - Mill creek, the principal stream, has its source in the township and empties into Loyalsock about a mile above Montoursville. Its tributaries are Sugar Camp creek, in the northern part of the township; Caleb's creek is in the northeastern part, and Lick run, in the southern part. Miller's run, Which rises in the southwestern part of the township, empties into the river east of Williamsport. In the northern part of the township David Kiess & Brother own and run a saw mill; J. W. Milnor, Sr., also has one in the same section and in the southeastern part of the township there is one run by C. D. Heim. All these mills are located on and fed by Mill creek. There are two grist mills in Warrensville: one, owned by J. K. Crawford, is run by water; the other, owned by C. 31. Aderhold, has steam and water both.

Warrensville is the only village in the township. The story of the origin of its name is as follows: In 1842, when there was talk of applying for a postoffice, several persons met in the store of John Hoffman, on Mill creek, and the question Warrensville, in honor of General Warren, was proposed, of a name came up. while others suggested Livingston. A vote was taken and Warrensville carried. The postoffice was established July 25, 1842, named Warrensville, and Samuel Torbert was appointed postmaster. His successors have been as follows: John Curran, appointed April 30, 1844; Jonathan O. Crawford, January 18, 1845; Michael Harlacher, August 15, 1846; John Hoffman, May 9, 1848; John Aughenbaugh, September 10, 1850; Joseph W. Milnor, June 19, 1851. The office was discontinued October 13, 1855, re-established November 21, 1855, and Joseph W. Milnor was re-appointed postmaster. Since that time his successors have been as follows: Jacob P. Hoffman, appointed April 28, 1856; Nathan B. Kimble, May 19, 186; Jacob P. Hoffman, April 30, 1858; Samuel R. Casner, July 16, 1861; Jacob P. Hoffman, August 5, 1862; John Griggs, January 12, 1863; Mark A. Champion, June 15, 1864; Thomas L. Frymire, January 25, 18831 John L. Willits, May 12, 1891. He is the present incumbent.

The land on which Warrensville stands was cleared in 1802 by Samuel Carpenter. He erected a grist and saw mill and carding machine, which were the first improvements of the kind in the settlement. They proved of great service to the early settlers. These original works have long since passed out of existence. The town of Warrensville was laid out in 1841 by John Weisel, but never has been incorporated. It is pleasantly situated and contains two stores and one Temperance Hotel, kept by Isaac M. Else. There is one tannery, carried on by E. W. Lundy, and two wagon maker and two blacksmith shops.

Educational. - In 1826 the first school house, of stone, was erected half a mile east of Warrensville. Lewis P. Reeder is credited with being the first teacher. Today there are five school houses in the township, viz: Warrensville, Christian Hill, North Eldred, Quaker Hill, and Excelsior.

Churches. - A society of Friends was organized near the present site of War-rensville about 1798, the time when a church was built at Penn's Dale, and frequent meetings were hold there.

In 1844 a church was erected Dear Warrensville for the use of all denominations, and Rev. Z. M. Ellis first officiated as pastor. He continued his labors for twenty years. In 1858 the Methodists erected a house which was occupied by them until 1870, when it was sold and used as a Good Templar's hall. In 1850 the Evangelical Methodists of Warrensville built a church, and in 1859 the German Baptists followed with one. The same houses of worship are there today. There is a church on "Christian Hill," near the cemetery. It is now only used for preaching funeral sermons. A Methodist congregation occupies the Quaker Hill school house regularly for religious services.

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