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PERIOD III. 1689-1763. INTERCOLONIAL WARS.
The trustees, wearied with the complaints of the colonists, surrendered their charter to the crown in 1752, and Georgia became a royal province. See p. 85, Chap. IV.
III. FRENCH AND SPANISH SETTLEMENTS .-- 1. The French, during this period, were taking possession of the immense regions they had explored.1
Lemoine d'Iberville, with about two hundred French colonists, made the first European settlement in the present State of Mississippi, at Biloxi, in 1699. Three years afterwards, he transferred most of the colonists to found Mobile. In 1712 the whole valley of the Mississippi, claimed by France as Louisiana,' was leased, for a term of years, to Anthony Crozat, a wealthy French merchant, on condition that he should bring into the country a stipulated number of immigrants. Under the auspices of Crozat was built, in 1716, Fort Rosalie, the beginning of the present city of Natchez. Crozat relinquished his lease the next year, and the country was for fifteen years under the direction of the Mississippi Company; which the famous John Law had organized in France. Bienville, the governor appointed by this company, founded New Orleans in 1718.
2. Near Fort Rosalie was the principal seat of the Natchez.2 The French demanded that these Indians should surrender the site of their village to them for plantations. Incensed at this arrogant demand, and urged on by the Chickasaws,3 who were hostile to the French, the Natchez, in 1729, fell upon the settlement at the fort, put the men to death, and made prisoners of the women and children. In retaliation for this massacre, a French force, the next year, nearly exterminated this proud tribe. Two attempts, both of which were signal failures, were made, a few years after, to subdue the hostile Chickasaws.
3. Before the last intercolonial war4 the French had constructed, between Montreal and New Orleans, a chain of forts, more than sixty in number.
The most important of these were Detroit, built in 1701, Niagara, in 1726, and Crown Point, in 1731. Other forts were built after the beginning of the difficulties that led to that war.5
4. Spain,6 claiming the whole coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and jealous of the efforts of France to colonize the country at the mouth of the Mississippi, erected a fort at Pensacola, in Florida, as early as 1696, perhaps earlier, and established military posts in Texas.
1 See p. 67, chap. XII. 2 see p. 23, note (VII.). 3 See P. 22, note (IV., 5).
4 See p. 87, Chap. VI. 5 See p. 88 ¶¶ 3, 6. 6 see p. 68, ¶¶ 1,2.
QUESTIONS. -- When and why did Georgia become a royal province? 1. What is said of the French during this period? -- Of the founding of Biloxi? Of Mobile? To whom was Louisiana leased? On what conditions? When and what was the beginning of Natchez? When and by whom was New Orleans founded? 2. Tell the story of the war with the Natchez. 3. Before the last intercolonial war what had the French constructed? -- What were the Must important of these? 4. What is said of Spain in Florida and Texas?
PERIOD III. 1689-1763. INTERCOLONIAL WARS.
KING WILLIAM'S WAR.1
1. WHEN James II. was driven from the throne of England,2 he fled for protection to Louis XIV., king of France, who espoused his cause. This kindled between the two countries, in 1689, the flames of a war, known as King William's War, which extended to their colonies in America. Both parties were aided by the Indians. Those of Canada and Maine, and the tribes to the east of Maine, joined the French; the Five Nations3 assisted the English.
2. At the opening of the war, in July, Dover, in New Hampshire, was surprised. The aged Major Waldron was slain, with twenty of his garrison, and twenty-nine captives were taken to Canada. The next winter, a party consisting of more than a hundred French and Indians fell upon Schenectady, in New York, and burned it. The assault was made in the dead of the night. Men and women were dragged from their beds, and, with their sleeping infants, remorselessly murdered. Sixty persons perished in the massacre; nearly half as many were taken prisoners; while the rest of the inhabitants, half naked, fled through the deep snow to Albany. In the spring, Salmon Falls, in New Hampshire, and Casco,4 in Maine, experienced a fate similar to that of Schenectady.
3. Roused by these atrocities, the colony of Massachusetts resolved to attack the enemy in turn. Accordingly, a naval expedition, under Sir William Phipps,5 sailed for the reduction of Port Royal,6 in Nova Scotia, and speedily effected its object. The same year the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York united in an attempt to conquer Canada. A land force, under a son of Governor Winthrop,7 of Connecticut, was sent against Montreal, and a fleet, under Sir William Phipps, against Quebec. Both these expeditions8 were disastrous failures. During the war nearly all the settlements in New Hampshire and Maine were attacked, and many of them were abandoned. Near its close the Indians fell upon Haverhill, Massachusetts, and killed or carried away many of the inhabitants.9
1 See Map, p. 81. 2 See p. 44, ¶ 10. 3 See p. 67, Chap. XII., ¶ 2. 4 Now Portland.
5 See p. 76, ¶ 3. 6 See p. 15, § III. 7 See p. 47, ¶ 4.
8 To defray her portion of the expenses incurred In these expeditions, Massachusetts issued bills of credit, or treasury notes -- the first paper money ever issued in the English colonies.
9 Among the captives was Mrs. Dustan, taken by the savages from a sick bed. This heroic woman, assisted by her nurse and by a boy who had been previously captured, planned on escape, which was successfully accomplished by killing, in the night, ten of the Indian family that guarded them, and making their toilsome way through the wilderness to Haverhill.
QUESTIONS -- 1. Cause of King William's war? When did it break out? What is said of the Indians in this war? 2. Describe the attack on Dover. On Schenectady. What is said of Salmon Falls and Casco? 3. What did Massachusetts resolve upon? What expedition Was fitted out? Result? Describe the attempt to conquer Canada. What of the settlements in New Hampshire and Maim? Of Haverhill?
CHAPTER III. QUEEN ANNE'S WAR.
4. In 1697 a treaty, which put an end to King William's war, was concluded at Ryswick.1 By this treaty each party was to have in America the same territorial claims as before the war.
QUEEN ANNE'S WAR.2
I. BEGINNING OF THE WAR. -- WAR IN THE SOUTH. -- 1. The peace of Ryswick proved of short duration, and in 1702 England declared against France and Spain a war which involved the American colonies of these countries. The principal causes of the war were, 1. On the death of James II., his son, James Francis Edward, The Pretender, was acknowledged by Louis XIV. as king of England, although this kingdom had settled the crown on Anne, second daughter of James II 2. Louis had placed his grandson on the throne of Spain, in violation of an agreement, to which England was a party, for preserving the balance of power in Europe. This war, commonly known in America as Queen Anne's War, is called in Europe the War of the Spanish Succession.
2. South Carolina began hostilities in America by sending, in 1702, an expedition by land and water, for the reduction of the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine.3 The town was taken without difficulty; but the garrison retired to the castle, which was strongly fortified. Soon two Spanish ships of war appeared off the harbor, and the Carolinians, abandoning their vessels and stores, made a hasty retreat. An expedition soon after undertaken by South Carolina against the Indian allies of Spain, residing on Appalachee Bay, was more successful. Their villages were burned and their lands laid waste. A large number of these Indians was removed to the banks of the Altamaha, and their country was given up to the Indian allies of the English.
3. In 1706 a French and Spanish squadron made an attack upon Charleston; but the inhabitants, led by their energetic governor, Nathaniel Johnson, and the brave Colonel William Rhett, captured one of the ships, took many prisoners, and, with slight loss to themselves, repelled the invaders.
1 A town in the west of Holland. 2 See map, p. 81. 3 See p. 13, ¶ 4.
QUESTIONS. -- 4. When did the war end? Where was a treaty concluded and how did it affect territorial claims in America? 1. Against what countries did England declare war? When? How did this war affect the American colonies? What causes of the war are mentioned? Name of the war In America and in Europe? 2. When and by what colony were hostilities begun? Describe the expedition against St. Augustine. The expedition against the Indian allies of Spain. 3. Give an account of the attack upon Charleston.
PERIOD III. 1689-1763. INTERCOLONIAL WARS.
4. During Queen Anne's war, but not as a part of it, the Tuscaroras,1 in North Carolina. exasperated by the encroachments of the whites, fell upon the plantations along Pamlico Sound and the Roanoke with such fury, that in one night one hundred and thirty of the inhabitants were slain. South Carolina came to the aid of the northern colony, and brought with her her native allies from beyond the Savannah. With this assistance the Tuscaroras were conquered. Nearly a thousand of them were taken prisoners. The remainder of the tribe migrated north in 1713, and were admitted as the sixth nation of the Iroquois confederacy.2 This war broke the power of the natives in North Carolina.
5. In 1715, after the close of the war, but before the bitterness engendered by it had died out, the Yamassees2 headed a confederation of all the tribes from Cape Fear to Florida, for the destruction of the whites in South Carolina. This confederation is by many supposed to have been instigated by the Spaniards of St. Augustine, with whom the Yamassees had recently entered into friendly relations. The savages desolated the frontier settlements, and advanced towards Charleston. So great was the danger, that the governor, Charles Craven, armed some of the slaves. Virginia and North Carolina contributed to assist the threatened province. The main body of the enemy was defeated and driven across the Savannah. The Yamassees took refuge with the Spaniards in Florida, and the other tribes soon made peace.
II. THE WAR IN THE NORTH. -- THE TREATY OF UTRECHT. 1. In the north the war took the same form as the preceding war. There were the same Indian alliances, except that the Five Nations,3 always friendly to the English, were now under a pledge of neutrality to the French, and shielded New York from hostile incursions, leaving Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire to bear the chief calamities of the war.4 Deerfield and Haverhill were sacked and burned by Canadians and Indians, and many of the inhabitants slain. Even the neighborhood of Boston was threatened.
2. In 1707 an unsuccessful attempt was made to wrest Port Royal5 from the French. Three years later its conquest was accomplished by a force from New England, in connection with a fleet from the mother country, and its name was changed to Annapolis, in honor of Queen Anne.
1 see p. 22, note (1.). 2 See p. 22, note (IV., 1). 3 See p. 82, ¶ 1
4 Governor Joseph Dudley, of Massachusetts, endeavored to secure the neutrality of the Abenakis. See p. 22, note (II., 1). "The sun," said their chiefs, "is not more distant from the earth than our thoughts from. war." yet, in six weeks from this time, these savages had begun their ruthless plunderings, and burnings, and murders all along the frontier, from the Kennebec to the country of the Mohawks. The now aged Captain Church (see p. 44, ¶ 7) offered his services to Governor Dudley, to punish the eastern Indians and the French for the savage cruelties perpetrated by them. Rewards were offered for Indian prisoners and for Indian scalps
6 See p. 15, § Ill., and p. 82, Chap. 3, 4.
QUESTIONS. -- 4. Give an account of the war with the Tuscaroras. Result to the Indians in North Carolina? 5. Give an account of the war with the Yamassees. Result to that tribe? To the other tribes? 1. What is said of the war in the north? How was New York shielded? Where did the chief calamities of the war fall? 2. When and how was the conquest of Port Royal accomplished? How was its name changed?
CHAPTER IV. THE SPANISH WAR.
3. The next year England sent a fleet and an army for the subjugation of Canada. Additional forces were promptly raised by the colonies, New Jersey and New York joining New England in this enterprise. The assistance of the Five Nations was also secured. Through the ignorance and obstinacy of the commander of the fleet, Sir Hovenden Walker, eight transports were thrown upon the rocks in the St. Lawrence, and nearly a thousand men perished. A land force, already on its way to attack Montreal, hearing of this disaster, returned.
4. A treaty concluded at Utrecht,1 in 1713, closed Queen Anne's war. By this treaty England obtained, in America, possession of Hudson's Bay, of Newfoundland, and of Acadia, since called Nova Scotia. The troubles with the eastern Indians2 continued for several years.
THE SPANISH WAR.3
1. ENGLAND, refusing to accede to the measures Spain had taken to prevent contraband trade with her American colonies, declared war against that country in 1739. This war involved the southern English colonies in difficulties with the Spaniards in Florida. After continuing about five years, with no important result in America, it became merged in King George's war.4
2. General Oglethorpe5 was ordered to invade the Spanish territory. In 1740, aided by a force from South Carolina, and by a large number of friendly Indians, he marched into Florida, and after taking two small Spanish forts, laid siege to St. Augustine.6 But sickness and desertion weakened the invading army, and Oglethorpe was forced to raise the siege.
1 A town of Holland, thirty-three miles south-east of Amsterdam.
2 The English pushed their settlements into the territories of the Abenakis, with an utter disregard of the rights of the natives. So great had proved the influence of the French missionaries over the Indians in the preceding wars, that the English came to look upon their establishments as hostile encampments. Sebastian Rasles, a Jesuit priest, dwelt near the present village of Norrigewock, with his savage converts, whom he had been gathering around him for more than a quarter of a century. In 1722 the English sent an expedition to breakup his mission; but the missionary, with his flock, escaped. In revenge, the settlements on the Kennebec were threatened, and Brunswick was burned by the Abenakis. Massachusetts now raised troops for a war against the eastern Indians, and offered a reward for each Indian scalp. A missionary village on the Penobscot, with its chapel was laid in ashes, and in 1724 the mission at Norridgewock was surprised, the venerable priest slain, his chapel and village pillaged and destroyed. The overthrow of the mission accomplished, French influence was at an end, and in 1726 a peace was negotiated with the eastern Indians.
3 See Map, p. 81. 4 See p. 86. 5 See p. 79. 6 See p. 13, ¶ 4.
QUESTIONS. -- 3. Describe the expedition for the subjugation of Canada. State the circumstances of its failure. 4. When did Queen Anne's war end, and where was the treaty concluded? What did England gain in America by this treaty? What of the troubles with the eastern Indians? 1. How were the southern English colonies involved in difficulties with the Spaniards in Florida? In what war did this war become merged? 2. Describe Oglethorpe's expedition against St. Augustine.
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