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ganized by Rev. Geo. R. Carroll, of Council Bluffs, Iowa, in November, 1869, with eight members, viz.: C. K. Conger, Marietta Conger, Mary S. Conger, Jesse Evelin Conger, Caroline R. Conger, Nancy E. Goodwill, Aby O. Cochrane. The foundation for their church building was laid Dec. 24th, 1870, and was dedicated to the worship of the living God, Sept. 1873.
   In the fall of 1854, the creeks and lakes were all dried up, the drought of the previous summer had been one of the most severe known and vegetation except on the low lands, was stunted. No snow fell in the winter of 1854 and 1855; no rain in 1855, until about August, when the ground which in many places had become dangerous to travel over, on account of the fissures, which were in places four inches in width and from one to three feet in depth, was filled with water. A new growth of grass started and continued growing till about the first of November.
   The winter of 1855 and 1856 was intensely cold but not much snow. Stock was wintered in the heavy timber and lived and fed on the great rush beds, willow browse and wild beans. On the second day of December, 1856, the great snow storm commenced and continued snowing incessantly night and day for six days. The fall had been open and mild and very few were prepared for this terrible storm. The settlers' stock had been driven to the rush-beds for wintering, the immense fall of snow (about four feet) had covered the rushes and hundreds of cattle died from starvation. It was reported that a man living in Iowa, lost 300 head of steers that winter.
   The drifts of snow were from five to fifteen feet in depth. Two houses in Tekamah, with families in, were covered up with snow. These were Gen. Erickson's and Mrs. Emenus Corps. The great snow drifts had cut of all communications with Omaha and Council Bluffs, the only source of supply, and starvation seemed imminent. But propitious providence averted this calamity by sending rain which so crusted the sur-


face of the snow as to prevent refilling the roads that were being opened into Iowa. Innumerable deer, antelope and elk were forced to the big timber on the Missouri river and became an easy victim of the hunter's rifle. Venison and elk steak were plenty and the household coffee-mill was made to do service as a corn cracker. Flour for a few weeks was not to be had until roads had been opened to Council Bluffs, a distance of sixty miles. When this great body of snow melted the ground was filled to overflowing with water; every stream overflowed its banks, the Missouri river rose above all previous high-water marks known to the oldest inhabitant. Some families living in the bottom timbers were surrounded by water and barely escaped drowning by getting off in canoes and a boat made of cotton-wood boards. Two men, F. E. Lang and Ernest Sandig, were living in a shanty near Gillick's bend. The river overflowed its banks between them and the bluffs and cut off their escape, their provisions had run out and for ten days their only subsistence was a small ham and a few ears of corn. There was now left them but one dog that had died of starvation. A consultation was had, and Mr. Sandig declared he would drown rather than eat a dog. The river was a good deal lower, now he would cross the stream or die in the attempt. They both decided to try and were successful.


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