Topography | Pre-Historic | Early Settlement|
First Fourth of July | Reminiscences | Jayhawking|
Organization | County Seat Troubles
War History | Official Roster | County Buildings | Railroads | Ferries|
Farmers' Clubs | Grasshoppers | Agricultural Society|
Nemaha County Mills | Bridges | Educational | Religious | Progress|
Statistics of Property | National and State Officials
Brownville: Early History | Pioneer Incidents | Surveys and Additions
Brownville (cont.): Incorporation | Official Roster|
Nemaha Valley Insurance Company
The Brownville Stone and Stone Coal Company
The First Telegraph Line | The First Train of Cars | Storm and Flood
Express Robbery | Educational | Religious | The Press
United States Land Office | River Improvements | Post Office
Masonic And Other Organizations | Library Association and Lyceum
Hotels | Banks | United States Express Company
Walnut Grove Cemetery | Manufactories | Attorneys and Physicians
Carson | London
8 ~ 10:
ARMSTRONG~HARRIS | HAWKS~MAXWELL
Peru: Early History | Societies | Education | The Press|
Railroads and Business Interests | Personal and incidents
Peru (cont.): Biographical Sketches|
Nemaha City: Early Settlement | Organization | Education|
Religious | Societies | The Press | Business Interests
Nemaha City (cont.): Biographical Sketches|
North Auburn: Early History | Religious | Educational | Societies|
Press | Hotels
South Auburn: Religious | Societies | The Press
North Auburn & South Auburn: Biographical Sketches|
Brock: Biographical Sketches|
Aspinwall: Biographical Sketches|
Johnson & Clifton: Biographical Sketches|
St. Deroin - Febing - Bedford: Biographical Sketches
Other Towns: Biographical Sketches|
List of Illustrations in Nemaha County Chapter
WILLIAM BRIDGE, farmer, P. O. Peru, is the son of E. Bridge and Jane Sellers Bridge, both deceased. He was born in 1833, in Fountain County, Ind.; learned the trade of a stone-mason in early life, and also taught a number of terms of school. He came to Nebraska in 1867, locating on his present farm in 1868. A shanty and forty acres broken, comprised the improvements. Mr. Bridge has built a tasteful brick house, set out several acres of orchard and grove, planted hedges, etc., and brought the entire farm to a state of improvement. He married Hannah C. Dague, of Pennsylvania. They have eight children--Schuyler F., Joseph W., William H., Martha J., Phoebe L., Mary E., Amy and Jessie. The three youngest wore born in Nebraska, the others in Indiana. In 1876, the parents and all the children were stricken with scarlet fever, a daughter aged six dying.
[Portrait of Robert Curry.]
ROBERT CURRY was born near Murrysville, Westmoreland Co., Penn. where he remained till in his ninth year, when his parents removed to Washington County, of the same State, where they had resided until a short time before his birth. His opportunities for obtaining an early school education were very meager, as his parents, although honest, industrious and intelligent, were in limited circumstances. Indeed, the most of his time during childhood and youth was necessarily devoted to work about the house and on the farm. His want of opportunity had been offset, however, to a certain extent, by his early home education, as he had learned to read and write, and treasured up in memory many psalms and hymns, and other choice selections of prose and poetry, and the whole of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism, further back than at his majority he could remember. The lessons he received in the Sunday school and from the pulpit were to him very valuable, and doubtless had much to do in shaping his character and forming his purposes for life. He early manifested an ardent desire to be somebody and do something in the world, and as a means to this end, was most anxious to obtain a liberal education. In the meantime, by his own unaided home efforts, supplemented by about forty days' instruction in the public schools of his neighborhood, he gained such a knowledge of the common branches of an English education as enabled him to pass a satisfactory examination before an intelligent school committee, from whom he received such certificates and recommendations as justified him in applying for a position as teacher in a public school. His services were still needed at home, but as his heart was set on getting an education, and as there was no prospect of his getting any pecuniary assistance in obtaining it, he now requested his father's permission to leave home, that by teaching he might earn enough money to educate himself. And as this proposal was agreed to, he at once made application for and secured a position as teacher in a public school. After teaching two or three terms, he became a student in the Academy at Frankfort Springs, Penn., where he made considerable progress in the study of mathematics and the languages. And then, after teaching and studying alternately a term or two more, he, in 1845, entered the Freshman class of Jefferson College, where he graduated in 1848. Then after teaching another year, he and Miss Mary McCloy, youngest daughter of Dr. Neal McCloy, near Cannonsburg, Penn., were united in marriage. Subsequently he held in turn the Principalship of the West Newton Academy, the Cambridge Union Schools, a Ladies' Seminary in Manchester, the Mansfield Normal School, and that of the New Brighton Female Seminary, in which last position be remained till his wife died in 1859, when he, with his little daughter, an only child, returned to Pittsburgh, where for a time he edited and published an educational journal, known as the National Educator. In 1860, he founded the celebrated Curry Normal Institute, an institution for the special education and training of teachers, which still bears his name. This was a private enterprise, which, while demanding high prices for tuition, had to compete with the free city High School, which also comprised a Normal Department. The school opened with only four students, but grew so rapidly that by the end of the first year it numbered over two hundred students. Its popularity increased from year to year, till before long there was a constant demand for all its teacher graduates, and, indeed, all its other students who could obtain certificates of any kind. During his thirteen years' connection with this institution, its average annual attendance was over three hundred and seventeen students, while toward the last of that period, some of it's catalogues show an annual enrollment of over four hundred students.
In 1873, he was appointed Deputy State Superintendent of Public Instruction in Pennsylvania, and, as his thirteen years of unceasing labor in building up and carrying on his school had somewhat impaired his health, and as in the meantime his little daughter had died, thus leaving him alone, he sold out his school, accepted the proffered position, and entered upon the duties of his office the 1st of June, 1873. His estimated fitness for the position, the nature of his work, and the ability with which he discharged the duties of his office, are aptly and briefly expressed in the following abstracts taken from leading educational journals and elsewhere. Thus Dr. J. P. Wickersham, in the Pennsylvania School Journal, for June, 1873, in speaking of the suitableness of his appointment, says: "Prof.. Robert Curry has all his life been engaged in the work of education. In 1854, he established the first normal school west of the mountains, and since that time he has been constantly engaged in the work of training teachers. His appointment was asked for by an immense number of superintendents, teachers, school directors, public men and leading private citizens. He seems to come into office by the universal good will of his section of the State, and the cause of education is expected to profit much by his appointment." The following resolution, which is copied from the published minutes of the Teacher's Association, held in the city of Pittsburgh April 5, 1873, and which was unanimously adopted by that body, is a type of the numerous requests above alluded to, and at the same time indicates the estimation in which he was held at home. "Resolved, that this convention nominate Prof. Robert Curry, and earnestly urge his appointment to the position of Deputy State Superintendent of Common Schools, believing that his natural ability, educational qualifications, extensive experience as an educator, ability as an institute lecturer and instructor, together with his high moral character, are such as to eminently fit him for this important position." The Warren Institute Gem, for September, 1873, says: "Prof. Robert Curry entered upon the duties of his office last June. The degree of Ph. D. was conferred upon him by Washington and Jefferson College last July. He is now in the prime of life and possessed of ripe scholarship and rich experience, and his services as State instructor cannot fail to be of incalculable value to the cause of education throughout the State." The National Journal of Education, for June, 1880, in speaking of Dr. Curry's official work in Pennsylvania, says: "As Deputy State Superintendent of Public Instruction, he spent nearly four years as State instructor in the county and city institutes of the commonwealth, and in attending the county and city superintendents' conventions, and in visiting the State normal schools and examining their graduating classes. His public addresses and official reports were very highly and widely appreciated, having been quoted largely by the National Bureau of Education in its annual reports, the French Centennial Commission in its report on the state of education in this country, and by the press in Canada, Germany and other foreign countries, as well as at home." During the summer of 1876, he made his headquarters in Philadelphia, where, having charge of Pennsylvania's Centennial Educational Exhibit, he had rare opportunities for becoming acquainted with the leading educators and educational systems of the world. In the meantime, he and Miss Jennie B. Boggs, of Allegheny City, were married and began housekeeping in Philadelphia, expecting to make that place their future home. In December of that year, he was unanimously elected Principal of the Nebraska State Normal School, and although it was not to his pecuniary interest to make the change, he had a desire to see the West, and, as the work was congenial and would permit him to enjoy more of home life, he at once resigned his office and repaired to Peru, Neb. In acknowledging the receipt of Dr. Curry's resignation, Dr. Wickersham, in the Pennsylvania School Journal, says: "In parting with Prof. Curry in Pennsylvania, it is only just to say that the cause of public education loses a warm friend and the Department of Public Instruction an able and faithful officer." In January, 1877, he entered upon the duties of his new position as Principal of the Nebraska State Normal School. Under his management, the history of the school has been one of uninterrupted prosperity. The Hon. S. R. Thompson, then State Superintendent of Public Instruction, in his annual school report for 1880, says: "Nebraska is fortunate in having one of the best normal schools in the United States. This statement is made deliberately, and after a careful study of the schools of other States. The firm, consistent management, the extended and liberal course of study, extending through five years, the zeal and ability of its teachers, the industry and enthusiasm of its pupils, render our normal school an institution of which every intelligent friend of education in the State may well feel proud." Dr. Curry has delivered many lectures and done considerable institute work in the State. He was President of the Nebraska State Teachers' association in 1880. He has always been an earnest student and is a deep thinker and able worker. Several years ago, he had partially prepared a series of arithmetics, which, while in manuscript form were destroyed during a conflagration. He is the author of the following pamphlets, viz., "The Earth as a Cosmical System," "The Earth as a Model School," "The Formation of Human Character," "Man and His Environment," "Education; What It is Not and What It Is," "Special Education," "Prerequisites to Success," "Geometry--Its Nature, Elements, Uses, and How to Teach It." He has several other works in a state of partial preparation.
WILLIAM M. DAILY, M. D., of Peru, is a son of Hon. S. G. Daily, deceased, and was born April 17, 1847, in Madison, Ind. During the early years of the civil war, he was in school at Georgetown, D. C.; later, a student in the United States Naval Academy at Newport, R. I., and, still later, a United States quarantine officer at the mouth of the Mississippi, and in New Orleans. In 1866, he began the study of medicine with Dr. Tingly, whose sudden death, at Ogden, W. T., was so much deplored. Graduating with honors from the Cincinnati Medical College in 1870, Dr. Daily practiced eleven years at Corning, Mo., coming from there to Peru in the summer of 1881. He married Jennie Williams, of Virginia, by whom he has a daughter, Grace L., born in Corning, Mo.
HON. WILLIAM DAILEY, for a long time one of the most prominent of Nemaha's citizens, was born in Jefferson County, Ind., July 24,1828. He settled in Peru Precinct, Neb, in 1861. In 1863, be was appointed Indian Agent by President Lincoln. In 1866, was elected to represent Nemaha County in the Territorial Council, and in the first State Legislature, was elected to fill a vacancy in the State Senate. Mr. Dailey was appointed United States Marshal for the District of Nebraska in 1871, and retained the position until 1880, when he declined a re appointment, and the same year was elected a member of the State Senate. Mr. Dailey resides on a fine farm in Peru Precinct, and is a practical agriculturist.
L. G. EDWARDS, farmer, P. O. Brownville. Mr. Edwards is the son of Taulbird Edwards, one of the first settlers of Nemaha County, who was born in 1808 near Lynchburg, Va., and who was a son of Isham Edwards, a Virginian, who removed with his family to Kentucky in 1811. Isham and Taulbird Edwards removed in 1835 to Greene County, Ill., removing in company to Iowa, and thence to Southwestern Missouri, where the aged grandmother died. From Holt County, Mo., in the spring of 1854, Taulbird Edwards accompanied by his family and his father, purchased a claim in the bottom south of Brownville, upon which William Hays had located with his family the year before. Soon after, Richard Brown gave Taulbird Edwards the lot on which the American House now stands, in Brownville, Mr. Edwards building upon it the first human habitation in Brownville--a log house, 12x14. This he replaced, in 1856, by the present American House, in which Isham Edwards died. Taulbird Edwards kept boarders here for a number of years, and then removed to a farm near Brownville. He now lives in Johnson County, Neb. By his wife, formerly Mary Clark, he has five living children--A. C., John, L. G., J. A. and Alice. L. G. Edwards was born in 1844, in Polk County, Mo. Remained with his father until 1862. Was then employed as a Government freighter, making trips from Nebraska City to the United States forts in New Mexico, Idaho and Montana, serving five years, the last two as Assistant Wagonmaster. Settled on his present farm in 1867. Married Frances Hale, of Andrew County, Mo. They have four children--Maggie, Effie, Charles and Mollie, all born on the Peru farm.
LEWIS FISHER, retired farmer, P. O. Peru, was born in 1835, in Tazewell County, Ill., but lived in Woodford County from 1849 until 1868, when he settled on a farm in Aspinwall Precinct; here he improved 360 acres, which he still owns, building a two-story farmhouse and basement barn. He then moved to a 320-acre farm, near, on which he erected a tasteful Gothic residence; the main structure was 16x32, with two wings, and making corresponding improvements. Since 1881, he has leased both farms, residing in Peru, where he came to educate his four children. Mrs.. Fisher was Eliza J. Peabody of Ohio.
DAVID JACK, now one of the leading merchants of Peru, furnishes a striking example of what intelligence and pluck will do for a young man in the wide free West. Born in 1840, in Washington County, Penn., he grew to manhood on a farm in Lee County, Iowa. Striking out for himself, he, together with the former surveyor, Gen. Cunningham, spilt rails, receiving one-half for pay, during the winter of 1857-58, in Richardson County, Neb. The next summer, he attended the academy at West Point, Iowa, taught school the following winter and for a number of years thereafter. Enlisting in August, 1862, in the First Iowa Cavalry, he served in Arkansas, Texas and Missouri until the close of the civil war. He then was sent to the Mexican frontier with the Army of Observation, and kept there until March, 1866. Locating in Nemaha City, He clerked for Mr. Hoover, and Mr. Minick, at Aspinwall, until 1870, meanwhile speculating in land to some extent. In the spring of 1870, having married Kate Hennessey, in Richardson County, he settled,, and for six years lived upon a farm five miles west of Nemaha City. Began business in Peru in 1877, and rapidly and steadily increased it, and now sells everything required by a farming population, including hardware and all kinds of agricultural machinery. He has a large store and is kept busy with a large trade. Mr. and Mrs. Jack have three children, all born in Nemaha County.
REV. J. C. JORDAN, pastor of the Baptist Church of Peru, was born in Hillsdale County, Mich., June 14, 1844. Is a graduate of the high school of Sturgis,, Mich., and of the Crozier Theological Seminary. Was ordained at Blair, Mich, September 20, 1868. For a number of years, Mr. Jordan had general missionary work in Northern Michigan, and was afterward pastor of churches at Franklin, Tenn., and Morgantown, W. VA. Located at Peru July 10, 1881. He is a son of Moses L. Jordan, of Kennebec County, Me., and Jane Judson Jordan, of Genesee County, N. Y. He married Lucy H. Tyler of Brecksville, Ohio, by whom he has four children--Effie M., born in Blair, Mich.; Estelle, born in Acme, Mich.; Judson H., born in Independence, W. Va., and Willis A., born in Morgantown, W. Va.
E. M. LIPPITT, Professor of Music in the State Normal School at Peru, is a son of Joseph Lippitt, of Brownville, and Cynthia Lattin Lippitt, who died at the family residence in Brownville, March 13, 1882. E. M. Lippitt was born, as were both his parents, in Otsego County, N. Y. The family settled in Brownville in 1870. Two years later, he entered the Chicago Musical College, which he attended at intervals for a number of years thereafter. Mr. L. has been an ardent admirer of music from his boyhood, and has spent the best years of his life in its study. He was appointed to his present position in October, 1881, succeeding Prof. Blake. Mr. L. is well known in the county as an excellent teacher, both in vocal and instrumental music, and his appointment was received with much satisfaction by all the friends of the Normal School.
J. M. McKENZIE, A. M., of Peru, practically the founder of the State Normal School, is the son of William McKenzie, a Scotchman by birth and lineage, and an engineer by profession, who brought his family to America in 1832, J. M. McKenzie being then but two years of age. William McKenzie was one of the first engineers on the New York Central Railroad, and died in 1836, at New Orleans. His wife was Mary Balderstone, of Edinburgh, Scotland. J. M. McK. was, until his fourteenth year, left in the charge of a Schenectady County (New York) farmer. Dissatisfied with the limited school advantages afforded by his mode of life, young McKenzie struck out for himself, but continued to attend school and work at the farming until he was twenty-one, when he entered the Jonesville Academy, from which he graduated. After a year in an academy at Poultney, Vt., he entered Union College, from which, after a faithful attendance of nearly two years, in 1857 he was called West to assume the care of his widowed mother. Locating at Fayette, Iowa, he was called to the Professorship of Latin and Mathematics at what is now the Upper Iowa University. Remaining here until the fall of 1861, he went to Decorah, Iowa, and in June, 1862, removed to Nebraska. Joining a brother-in-law in Pawnee City, he made the acquaintance of a number of influential men, who proceeded to erect a two-story school building, 40x26. During the process of construction, in the winter of 1862-63, he taught school under the auspices of the same men in a building formerly used as a saloon. Thus was formed the Nemaha Valley Seminary and Normal Institute, out of which grew the present Normal School. Through the influence of Senator William Dailey, Prof. McKenzie was induced to change his field of operations, and he came to Peru in 1866 and took the Principalship of Mount Vernon College, founded by Mr. Dailey and other prominent Peruvians as a Methodist Seminary. In this building, now used as a dormitory, Prof. McKenzie taught as Principal of the Normal School until late in 1870, when he was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction. To Prof. McKenzie must be given the credit of revising the school laws of the State, the establishment of the school record system and the Normal Institutes. He served six years as State Superintendent, and in 1877 was elected Principal of the Brownville High School. After remaining two years in that position, he accepted his present position as Professor of Mathematics and Book Keeping in the State Normal School. He married Miss Charlotte Burch, London, Canada, and has four children--Mary L., Charlotte S, John B. and Agnes J.
HON. WILSON E. MAJORS, Peru, was born June 19, 1843, in Jefferson County, Iowa. He accompanied his father to Peru in 1861, and in June of the same year, enlisted in the First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry. At the re-organization of the regiment, he was promoted to Second Lieutenant, and served as Battalion Adjutant until 1866. On leaving the service, he entered the Methodist Episcopal School, afterward the State Normal School, in Peru, and attended until he entered his brother's office as Clerk in the United States Internal Revenue Assessment Office. He was elected County Clerk of Nemaha County in 1873, and served in that capacity for three terms. Mr. Majors is the owner of a section of land near Peru, and an elegant homestead near that pretty village. His wife was formerly Olive Nickell, of La Porte County, Ind. They have four children, all born in Nemaha County.
Hon. S. P. MAJORS, Peru, was born in Simpson County, Ky., April 27, 1819. Nine years later his widowed mother removed to Sangamon County, Ill., his father, Elijah Majors, having died in 1821. At the age of nineteen, S. P. Majors went to Jefferson County, Iowa, where he worked as a stone-mason. In 1861, he settled with his family in Peru, coming from Libertyville, Iowa, beginning mercantile business. Six years later, he sold out and until January, 1881, devoted his attention to the real estate business. Mr. Majors was elected a member of the first Constitutional Convention and to the Legislature in 1871, accepting the office with the understanding that his best efforts were to be devoted to securing an appropriation for a new Normal School building at Peru. In this he was eminently successful, only three votes being cast against the measure.
A. M. MEDLEY, Peru, is a son of Alfred and Mary Grieves Medley, who were among the very first of Nebraska's pioneers, as they located at Honey Creek, in this State in 1855. Two years later, the family settled in Peru, where the widowed mother and three children now reside. Alfred Medley was a blacksmith by trade. He died in 1858, in Cairo, Ill., leaving his widow with seven children--John J., George W., Frank M., Harriet E., Austin M., Martin R. and Sarah J. The three eldest sons enlisted in the Union army and did credit to their family during the civil war. The children now resident at Peru are Austin M., born in Crawford County, Ill., as was Martin R. The youngest daughter is the wife of Louis Baller, of Peru.
H. M. MEARS, was born in the neighborhood of St. Louis, Mo., in 1844. His early days were spent in Platte County, Mo., and Fort Leavenworth, Kan. In 1864, he removed to Nemaha County, Neb., and in 1874, located at Peru, and commenced in the grocery business, which proved to be a success from the start, and has now grown to be one of the largest general stores in the county. Mr. Mears is also a partner and manager in the Chicago Lumber Company, at Peru, and a partner in the large drug house of Mears & Skinkle, and owner of the harness and saddlery establishment of that place and is very largely interested in the manufacture of brick.
J. F. NEAL, M. D., Peru. Mr. Neal was born March 13, 1835, near Urbana, Ohio, and was educated in the Ohio Wesleyan University. Removing to Iowa in 1855, he studied medicine with Dr. Walker, of Libertyville, took a course of lectures in Keokuk, and, in 1859, settled in Peru. Practiced here until the spring of 1868, when he took a final course of lectures in the Cincinnati Eclectic Institute. Since 1870, he has resided on a fine farm near the village, and has devoted much attention to fruit and stock growing. On this farm is the noted orchard that first bore apples in Nebraska. The Doctor owns in all over 2,000 acres of land in Peru Precinct. He married Martha Perry, of Missouri, by whom he has three children, all born in Peru. The Doctor is a genial and whole-souled gentleman, as well as capable physician and business man.
H. H. NICHOLSON, Professor of Physics and Chemistry in the State Normal School of Peru, is a native of Rushford, Winnebago Co., Wis., and was born May 25, 1850. Received in his native county a good common school education, after which he graduated from Antioch College, Ohio. Prof. Nicholson has since devoted his life to teaching, beginning at Rush Lake, Wis. After teaching a number of terms as Principal of the high school of New London, Waupaca and Weyauwega, Wis., he removed to Nebraska in 1874, and at once entered upon the duties connected his present position. In the eyes of many veteran educators of Nebraska, the future of this young man looks bright and most promising, as in him are combined elements of intellectual and physical force of no common order.
F. B. REED, M. D., of Peru, was born in 1828 in Meigs County, Ohio. Took his first course of lectures in the Sterling (Ohio) Medical College. Located in Madison County, Iowa, in 1855. Graduated from the Medical Department of the Iowa State university in 1856. Practiced in St. Charles, Iowa, until 1859, then settled in Rock Bluff, Neb., where he practiced until his coming to Peru. During 1881, Dr. Reed and his nephew, F. D. Reed, published the Peru Herald, an eight-column folio, independent in politics. The Doctor married Mary Ross, of Brown County, Ohio, by whom he has two children, both born in Nebraska. Mrs. Dr. Reed assumed charge of the dormitory of the State Normal School in January, 1882, and is giving evidence of superior abilities as a business woman in her very popular management.
A. J. RICHARDSON, farmer, P. O. Peru, born in Washington County, Penn., and named by President Andrew Jackson on the occasion of a great political meeting. He grew to manhood in his native State. Removing at eighteen to Cass County, Ind., he came from there in 1857 to Nemaha County, Neb. His claim, filed January 1, 1858, was the first on the books at Brownville. Mr. Richardson has seen much of pioneering, and can tell of his experiences in times when flour was $16 per barrel, lard 50 cents per pound, and everything else edible selling at a corresponding rate, and he by no means flush, as he reached the State almost penniless. He now has about 500 acres of good land, divided into improved farms on which his sons are flourishing as practical progressive farmers. He married Susan Merritt, of Clark County, Ohio, by whom he has four children--Maria, William H., Cyrus T. and Anna. George E. Richardson died in 1880 at the age of nineteen.
W. W. SMITH, farmer, P. O. Peru, born in 1826 in Luzerne County, Penn. He learned the trade of blacksmith in early life. In April, 1857, he came to Nebraska, and the same fall filed his claim on his present farm, built a rude log house, and began life here with his small family. In 1862, he removed to Peru, and for seven years was in partnership with his brother, R. B. Smith, in the blacksmithing business. Since 1869, he has resided on his farm, having built a good frame house, and made other improvements. He married Caroline Whitman in his and her native county. They have six living children--Flora A., Harris B., Ketura A, Charles G., M. Maud and Bessie May. The eldest was born in Pennsylvania, and the others in Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Smith lost five children in infancy and extreme youth. Mr. Smith is a Greenbacker, and a member of the Peru M. E. Church with his wife.
WILLIAM TYNON, farmer, P. O. Peru. Mr. Tynon was born in 1841, in Will County, Ill., and, has been a life-long farmer. Ill health caused his coming to Nebraska in 1869, and, for several years, he bought, fattened and sold cattle in Nemaha and Atchison Counties. In 1872, he settled on 160 acres of his present farm. To this he has added one quarter after another, until he now owns 960 acres of the rich bottom land in Peru Precinct. This soil is naturally productive of grass, Kentucky blue grass thriving upon it almost spontaneously. At present, Mr. Tynon handles about 200 head of cattle annually, besides 300 to 400 Berkshire and Poland-China hogs. His home farm is supplied with a number of stock wells sixteen feet deep furnished with wind-mill, and the farm is well equipped with yards, sheds, scales, etc., for stock growing. He has a pleasant home and family. Mrs. Tynon was Mamie Corning; they have six children.
N. B. WHITFIELD, Peru, was born in Stewart County, N. C., August 20, 1822. A year later the family moved to Marion County, Ill., for six years, when there was only three families living in the county. Located in Vandalia, then the capital of the State, where N. B. grew up to manhood. Enlisted in the Third Regiment Illinois Volunteers for twelve months; re-enlisted in the Fourteenth Regiment for during the war. He served under Gen. Scott in the Mexican war, taking part in the capture of Vera Cruz, and the battles of Cerro Gordo, Pueblo, Molino Del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of the City of Mexico. When discharged, he located in St. Louis for five years, again locating in Illinois. He spent twenty years in Bureau County, locating in Johnson County, Neb., in 1866, and removed to Peru in 1870. Owns 120 acres of good land adjoining Peru, twenty of which he devotes to the growing of apple, peach, plum, pear and crab trees as a nursery stock. Mr. W. raises all kinds of berries, grapes, cherries, gooseberries and currants by the ton. It is his intention to double the acreage of his nursery this year (1882). His wife was Margaret A. McKenney, of Crawford County, Ill. They have three children--W. M., Henry and Hester, all born in Bureau County, Ill.
JACOB ZARNIG, farmer, P. O. Peru, born in 1834 in Ohio. When eleven years old, he accompanied his widowed mother to Indiana, thence in 1856 to Nemaha County, Neb. His mother married Hon. S. A. Chambers, who settled in Peru Precinct in 1855, and who is still one of the most respected and honored of Peru's pioneers. Mr. Zarnig made a claim on the Nemaha bottom, which he sold prior to his settlement on his present farm, then of 120, now of 320 acres. He married, in 1863, Maria Richardson, by whom he has four children--Ella H., Jackson H., William C. and Minnie P., all born in Nemaha County. Mr. Zarnig is a member of the Peru Lodge, A., F. & A. M.