|SECTION 1: The Early Days||SECTION 2: More Early Days|
|SECTION 3: Omaha in 1870||SECTION 4: Present Day (1882)|
|SECTION 5: Crimes||SECTION 6: Fires and Public Works|
|SECTION 7: Health, Parks, Mail||SECTION 8: The Press in Omaha|
The Omaha Herald | The Tribune | The Omaha Bee|
Other Jounalistic Venures
|SECTION 10: Religious|
|SECTION 11: Religious (cont.)||SECTION 12: Cemetery and Schools|
|SECTION 13: Legal and Medical||SECTION 14: Opera House-Hotels-Business|
|SECTION 15: Societies||SECTION 16: Societies Continued|
|SECTION 17: Business||SECTION 18: Manufacturing|
|SECTION 19: Manufacturing (cont.)|
20 - 46:
** Omaha Biographical Sketches **|
| ABLE~BARRIGER | BARTLETT~BOYD | BOYER~BURNHAM |
| BURR~CONKLING | COFFMAN~CREIGHTON |
| CRITTENTON~DIETZ | DINSMOOR~FAWCETT |
| FEARON~GAYLORD | GELATTE~GROSSMANN |
| GROSS~HAVENS | HAWES~HOILE |
| HOLDREDGE~JORGENSEN | JOSLYN~LEISENRING |
| LEHMAN~LOWE | LUDINGTON~MARHOFF |
| MANNING~MILLER | MILLSPAUGH~NINDEL |
| O'CONNOR~PEABODY | PAUL~READ | REDICK~ROGERS |
| ROSENBERY~SCOTT | SEAMAN~SIMPSON | SINCERE~STONE |
| STORZ~UMPHRESON | URLAU~WILBUR | WILDE~WOOD |
| WOODARD~ZEHRUNG | West Omaha Precinct | Douglas Precinct |
List of Illustrations in Douglas County Chapter
To no journal, and to the single efforts of no man, is the city of Omaha, the county of Douglas and this portion of Nebraska more indebted for the development of their internal resources and the promotion of a pronounced and permanent success, than to the Herald and its editor, George L. Miller. And the opportunity is here availed of by the writer to honor himself and honor a distinguished man by adding a word of testimony, taken from universal report, to the very general verdict of praise which has been bestowed upon him and the journal he so ably conducts, by the public. In his conduct of the Herald, Dr. Miller has met every emergency, anticipated every possibility of endeavor with a steadiness of perception and a sagacity unexcelled. He has been the Herald, directing its policy, dictating its management and scrutinizing every detail of its work. He deserves well of journalism, of the interests he conserves, of the success he labors to accomplish in behalf of his adopted home, which he has witnessed grow up from a frontier settlement to a city of wonderful possibilities. Those who have watched his course have seen a young, self-contained, rather reserved man enter the field of journalism against a competitor which had obtained pronounced foothold, with editors older in the service and felicitating themselves upon an established success. They saw him gradually, by the exercise of a sound discretion, disarm criticism, transform rivals into adherents and enemies into eulogists. It is further his triumph that in a profession made up of diverse minds, he has been able to preserve a perfect magnaminity of management. The Union Pacific, the smelting works, the old Grand Central, and latterly the opera house, completed in 1881, received their initial impetus from editorials contained in the Herald, and are monuments to his professional enterprise that will survive the moth and rust of time, and teach a thousand useful and noble lessons to fire many an young soul with the highest ambition.
The Omaha Herald entered upon its existence as a daily on the 2d of October, 1865. Numerous efforts had been previously made to establish a paper in Omaha, and all, save the Republican, which anticipated the Herald by a brief period, had had but a brief existence. Its advent was by no formal announcement; yet, encouraged by an unexpected liberality, it began its career with a large and rapidly increasing patronage. The ends expected to be served were not proclaimed, but the paper was designed from day to day and week to week to speak for itself. Indeed, the editors would fail in their endeavors unless through its columns, the moral tone, public spirit and rapidly expanding interests of the young and growing Territory were fitly represented.
Politically, it would occupy no uncertain position, but be found true and steadfast to that political organization whose interest was coeval with the Government itself, and labor with zeal in a tolerant and becoming spirit for the success of the great National Democratic party of the country, whose founder was Thomas Jefferson.
The paper was issued as a folio of twenty-four columns under the firm name of Miller & Carpenter, and its success was instant and gratifying. The edition of that day would scarcely be recognized as a city production in this age of improvement and progress; nevertheless it was eagerly sought after and played its part in the drama of life attended by an applause rarely accorded, even to the advocate of the rights of the people or the interests of a special section, and nought was spared to merit the confidence and support of those whose rights were thus designed to be consulted.
As the paper increased in years and strength its appearance as an exposition of journalistic excellence and typographical art improved proportionately. Business became brisk, the circulation secured was large and the time of its editor was very generously trespassed upon in the discharge of his manifold duties in the several capacities of writer and reporter. The locum in tenens of the Herald, it should be observed, was at the corner of Thirteenth and Douglas streets. Here it was born and grew up through the various gradations of infancy, childhood and manhood, witnessing much during these several periods to stir a fever in the blood of journalistic ventures of Democratic proclivities; many changes in the growth and development of the nation, the State, the county and the city.
During the war the policy of the paper was directed to reforms in civil administrations with the hope that by and through these reforms whatever remained undestroyed of constitutional government would be preserved, and on that basis reconstruct the shattered fabric of republican empire. To-day "reform" is the battle cry of the Herald. Reform in every department of government, national, State and municipal. A reduction of expenses and consequent reduction of the excessive taxation which not only retards prosperity among the people, but promotes corruption in the Government. That its efforts have not been vain is apparent from the encouragement and patronage it has received, as also in the wide-spread influence it exerts.
On the 10th of March, 1868, the paper was enlarged to ten columns and otherwise improved and made attractive. This enlargement was necessary because of an increased patronage due to the character of the paper itself. It represented the principles and measures of an organization which had brought the country to a condition of perfection beyond comparison. Local issues had been held in subjection to principles and the elevation of political aspirants had never been made its sole object. The editor realized that the prosperity of his journal involved a wider range and must rest upon a more permanent basis, the foundations of which were Truth and Right.
The same year, on the 5th of August, the firm of Miller & Carpenter was dissolved, by the purchase of the establishment by Lyman Richardson and John S. Briggs. But this change was only temporary. Combinations and circumstances prevailed which permitted but a brief lease of power to the vendees. Dr. Miller remained in charge as editor during their administration, which was continued but six months, when that gentleman became once more vested with the controlling interest. Mr. Briggs dissolving his connection from February 11, 1869. In March following it was again found necessary to secure space for the increased volume of news and advertising that the times and enterprise of the publishers evoked, and nonpareil was substituted for minion and brevier in its composition and make-up. About this period, as will be readily recalled, the effects of the Reconstruction measures in the South were becoming apparent in the disordered condition of affairs there existing and growing out of the prevailing complications. Dr. Miller visited several of the Southern States to study the situation professionally, examine into the charges alleged, and ascertain if it were possible to reach a solution of these difficulties without recourse to the violent means recommended and employed. The results of his investigations appeared in a series of letters to the Herald supplemented by brief but pointed editorials upon facts which he found to exist in Louisiana and elsewhere. These produced the effect of disabusing public opinion regarding the status of affairs there, at once conclusively and irresistibly. The evidence of their force and utility is to be found in the fact that opposing journals without the inclination to investigate admitted his conclusions upon the premises stated, but demurred to the facts alleged, and Dr. Miller in advance of his contemporaries having taken a stand on what to him seemed to be the truth, maintained his position without variation or retreat. About this time, too, the Reform party, appreciating the impending crisis throughout the country, convened at Cincinnati and promulgated views and urged measures which were thought indispensable to the perpetuity of a republican form of government. The editor of the Herald, a Democrat by education and reflection not less than a reformer, accepted the nomination of Mr. Greeley, and advocated his election as means that "would put a check upon the fraud and corruption which was permeating every branch of the Government and inoculating every department with its virus." With these views as his index of action the editor of the Herald began the campaign and fought the good fight of reform until the re-election of Grant dissipated hopes in that behalf, and consigned the philosopher of Chappaqua to the tomb of comparative forgetfulness.
In 1875 the Herald attained its tenth year. A decade before it had been ushered into the newspaper world and proved a success. It had assumed a position and held that position against all competitors; having passed through the dangers and trials incident to journalistic infancy, it long since took its place among the established literary ventures of the day. Within the radius of its influence national railroads, public works and private enterprises had been brought forth and, surviving the travails of birth amid discouraging surroundings, were growing in strength and spreading out their arms and octopus like were gathering sources of wealth within their resistless embrace.
During the campaign of 1876, the Herald occupied no neutral position. Throughout the entire summer and fall and up to the day of election the paper at all times and under all circumstances urged the success of the Democracy. Subsequent to the election, and while the issue remained in dispute its editor insisted upon the rights of Mr. Tilden and opposed all measures looking to a compromise. The plan of the Electoral Commission was emphatically deprecated, on the ground that the commission provided a way for counting the electoral votes not contemplated by the Constitution, and the decision of the commission was not less emphatically reprehended. The result, however, was accepted, though not as the law or as the will of the people, having through the agency of others become a party to a contract in which one of the parties was deceived and left in the vocative, the Herald as an index to Democratic opinion advised a peaceful acquiescence in the decision from which an appeal would lie four years hence.
In 1878, the Herald was enlarged from a folio to a quarto containing fifty-six columns, and the position and prominence, long since attained in the field of journalism have appreciated in value and influence. One feature of the paper's history has not been mentioned, and should not be overlooked. Its management has been of a character so conservative and careful, that since the "forms" were first "made up" not $1 has ever been sunk. It has paid from the day of its birth and with each succeeding year its income has increased.
The present value of the establishment is quoted at $125,000, owned solely by George L. Miller and Lyman Richardson, with Dr. Miller assisted by a corps of aids in editorial charge.
was first ushered into existence as an evening paper on Monday, July 20, 1870, by the Tribune Company, of which Joseph B. Hall was president; J. W. Hines, vice-president; W. B. Smith, secretary; W. R. Bartlett, treasurer; and Joseph B. Hall, manager. Its objects were: the earnest advocacy of the fundamental principles upon which the Republican party was founded; the development of the agricultural and other resources of Nebraska; the promotion of morality, justice and a pure and elevated civilization, and the advancement of the public weal. The new journal was a folio of thirty-two columns, with an attractive "make up," and well presented. Its local and news departments were "full" upon all topics of public interest; its telegrams contained late and interesting intelligence, both foreign and domestic; its commercial columns seemed complete and reliable, and the literary and miscellaneous selections bore the impress of experience and appreciation of the general wants. With these recommendations, the Tribune began its career with promise of an abundant success. The office was in Brown's Block, on Fourteenth, between Farnam and Douglas streets, and the responsible editor, C. B. Thomas. The paper was continuously published in the afternoon until February 7, 1871, when in response to earnest solicitations of Republicans throughout the State, its issue as a morning paper was begun. From subsequent comments, it would seem that trials and travails became its portion, rather than wealth and influence. Yet the paper was in appearance comprehensive, sharp, spicy and entertaining beyond belief. In spite of these advantages, however, its days, in the light of history, were numbered at the very hour when its columns appeared at their best, and its promise of prolonged vitality the brightest. In May rumors of suspension, removal to Lincoln, etc., found expression, when the editor insisted that his charge "had but just begun a long career of influence and honor," and in almost the next edition, took "pleasure in announcing that arrangements for the consolidation of the Tribune and Republican had been consummated, and thereafter, "the former would not enjoy a several existence." This consolidation, it was said, was accomplished to the end that contests in Republican ranks might in the future be avoided, and for the further purpose of consulting an economy that was indispensable, in a city that was not large enough to support three daily papers. The result of the consolidation was first issued on the morning of Sunday, June 11, 1871, the editorial management of the Tribune being retained, with St. A. D. Balcombe, of the Republican, as business manager, of what was then created, and has since been known, as the Tribune Company.
Omaha Bee, daily and weekly, was first issued on Monday, June 19, 1871, by H. Geralde. At that date the paper was a single sheet of five columns to the page, filled with the quota of news and advertisements available to such limited dimensions. The object seemed to be to furnish the latest intelligence accessible at the hour of going to press, in a thoroughly condensed form. This afforded evidence, in addition to other novelties, that the editor of the paper determined to deserve success in a field of journalism previously untrodden. It was presented to the public free of charge, and was, as the intention of the management designed it should be, the rectified essence of diurnal journalism. The one sheet was maintained until July 3, of the same year, when the single sheet was enlarged to a folio, though diminished in size, and so continued until the 27th of the same month, at which time the original dimensions were restored, and the amount of reading matter increased proportionately. At the same time Mr. Edward Rosewater first appears as publisher and proprietor, Mr. Geralde still occupying the position as editor. The popular favor accorded the Bee as a gratuitous advertising medium, and the general desire expressed for its enlargement that accomplished the changes above mentioned, proved that the endeavor of the publisher to produce a readable paper was not vain. The editorials were concise, clean cut and to the point, avoiding ambiguity or useless verbiage, and directed to the comprehension of the general reading public. The locals were equally attractive, and the selections of a character to commend popular approval. Success was guaranteed by a combination of circumstances that precluded a probability of failure, and the office at No. 510 Thirteenth street was a depot of business and profit. Politically, the paper was Republican, but thoroughly independent, and it has fully illustrated the fact that independent journalism, when honestly pursued as a profession, can be made to pay.
By August of the year in which the Bee was established, its assurances of success were so gratifying that it was again enlarged, this time four columns being added to the sum total of those which had previously constituted the "make up" of the paper. The facilities for the acquisition of news, both telegraphic and local, were also increased, and from this date on, new features of excellence were gradually introduced, including, among others, the issue of a weekly edition, for which the claim was made that it possessed a larger circulation in Nebraska and Kansas than any other journal. With the issue of May 6, 1873, the Bee is found to be double the size of a previous day, a step required by the advertising patronage; the price of the paper is also increased $1 per annum, and the publisher renews his pledge to furnish subscribers as much and as good reading matter as is presented in the columns of contemporaries. Within a year from its establishment, the Bee had increased its circulation to a large figure, and its course had been steadily forward.
On June 11, 1872, the Bee office was destroyed by fire with a loss of $6,000, partially insured, and for about two weeks the paper was issued one-half its ordinary size. At the expiration of that period, however, in full dress with its banner flying at No. 138 Farnam street, a location secured while the embers of the whilom Cedar Rapids House--which by the way, had been the scene of murder, as also conflagrations--were yet unextinguished. At this time and for years subsequent its extended circulation made the Bee the official paper of the city. The professional ethics of Mr. Rosewater seem then to have been included in the creed that the duty of an editor was the publication of the news, without reference to the effect such publication may have produced upon the public or individuals. Outspoken in what he considered the line of his journalistic duty, the editor and proprietor was no less emphatic in his efforts through the Bee to attract immigration to Nebraska, to urge upon the citizen the necessity of labor and diligence for the development of the internal wealth of the State, the establishment of a school system and other improvements previously untried for the benefit of the age in which he lived, as also for the benefit of posterity. Yet these results were not the driftings of a passing chance; they were secured only at the expense of time, patience, perseverance and pluck. Desperate attempts were made at times to force the Bee into an untimely grave, but such attempts ignominiously failed, and the time came in the early history of the paper when domestic malice and foreign levy could injure the journal's chances of existence no more, they were beyond the reach of covetous envy or carping conspiracy. In two years the paper increased from an advertising sheet 12x18 inches in size and printed for gratuitous distribution, to a first-class daily, in dimensions, make up, influence and circulation and was on the high way to a prosperity that could not long be delayed. Its gradual growth furnishes one of the most interesting chapters in the history of Western journalism. In September, 1873, to keep pace with the subscription list which was claimed to be larger than that of any other daily in Nebraska, a Hoe press was purchased and set up, and the facilities of the paper largely increased in every respect, not excepting the job department, the receipts from which averaged $1,000 per month, and this, too, when the effects of the memorable panic, growing out of the suspension of Jay Cooke & Co., were most sensibly felt.
Early in its youth the Bee began the publication of a morning issue in addition to the regular evening edition. This was for circulation along the lines of railroads running out from Omaha in various directions. When it was first established, the venture was regarded rather as experimental, but as it was proved a success it was kept up and improved from time to time until to-day the innovation upon all precedent, is in a condition of successful prosperity highly gratifying and remunerative. With the issue of March 7, 1874, the paper was enlarged in length and breadth, to nine columns and a new dress throughout, appearing more attractive than ever before. The expansion afforded a large amount of reading matter, an item that was appreciated by the public. This was the fifth enlargement within the three years of its existence, and brought the paper to the form in which it is now issued.
On January 1, 1875, the Bee made its New Year's bow to the citizens of Omaha; to whom its publishers presented an illustrated supplement and annual review of the condition of trade, manufactures, etc., in the city and vicinity for the year 1874. This was a new departure, a new dispensation in the field of journalism never before undertaken west of Chicago and St. Louis, and certainly never excelled by the papers of either those cities in the extent or value of the information thus furnished. The precedent this year established by the Bee has since annually obtained with that paper, and the statistics yearly submitted are a valuable adjunct to enable citizens and strangers to comprehend the vast magnitude of Omaha's commercial facilities and also the extent and variety of her manufacturing industries. The evidence of Omaha's progress and the solidity of that progress, in short, is here yearly promulgated. The actual daily circulation of the paper at this period was 2,520 copies, as sworn to by the mailing clerk of the establishment.
As an instance of the enterprise of editor Rosewater, the balloon ascension of July 8, 1875, is recalled. Unaided, but discouraged rather, from this undertaking, Mr. R. projected a celebration of the national holiday at Omaha, the programme for which, including the balloon ascension, attracted thousands to the city from abroad. The inclemency of the weather prevented the complete carrying out of the exercises and the ascension was ex necessitate postponed until the following Thursday, when John H. Pierce, an attache of the Bee, made the trip without a basket, but supported on the ring inside the net ropes. There were other evidences of that spirit indigenous to and which has made American journalism so incomparably superior to that of other countries. The entire State was traversed by special agents, the value of each section agriculturally, meteorologically and otherwise, carefully investigated and communicated through its columns. When this undertaking was concluded correspondents were detailed to canvass the resources of the "Great West," which were also promulgated by the same medium and became of great value to the emigrant, the tourist, and the speculator. In 1876 the Bee readers experienced another surprise in the issue of an eight page edition of the paper on Saturdays, made up of well selected stories, poetry, telegrams, editorials and city news presented in attractive shape. The same year the assassination of Mr. Rosewater was attempted by a pair of disreputable and desperate Senegambians upon whose unlawful resorts and felonious acts Mr. R. had commented with severity. He was for two months confined to his room and his final recovery, which at times was considered a question of chance rather than probability, was hailed by a host of friends. In the election of that year when "Hayes was chosen" to succeed Grant, the Bee was earnest in its support of the Republican candidate.
In September, 1878, arrangements were perfected for the addition of a lithographing department to the Bee, to be known as the Omaha Bee Lithographing Company, conducted by the proprietor of the paper under the superintendence of J. Brown and J. Rachek, experienced lithographers, who were brought from the East. Work was commenced at once and has been continued up to a short time ago, the company turning out some of the finest jobs ever seen in the State. Previous to this movement the proprietorship of the Bee passed into the hands of a corporation organized in February, 1878, and called the Omaha Publishing Company. The authorized capital was stated at $100,000 but the actual stock represented in the establishment was $40,000. This sum included the ownership clear and unincumbered of the real estate on Farnam street, also the building thereon together with the machinery, materials and good will of the paper. By the organization of this company the mortgage indebtedness of the concern, amounting to $18,000, was liquidated, and the Bee became one of the most solid institutions in the shape of printing houses in the Western country. The controlling interest of the establishment remained in the hands of Mr. E. Rosewater, but the management of its affairs were vested on a board of directors at that time composed of E. Rosewater, A. Rosewater, Max Myer, Edwin Davis and G. W. Lininger. The pioneer officers were: E. Rosewater, president and managing editor; Edwin Davis, treasurer, and Alfred Sorenson, secretary.
Editorially, there was no change, but the paper was immediately greatly improved in appearance and otherwise in keeping with the times. A new dress was secured and other important auxiliaries obtained which have since contributed to enforcing a recognition from competitors, withheld until its value and influence became so pronounced as to be undeniable.
The present officers of the Bee Company are E. Rosewater, president and editor; A. R. Souer, secretary; Edwin Davis, treasurer.
The daily circulation is placed at 6,100; that of the weekly at 16,000; and the establishment is quoted as worth $50,000.
The Omaha Evening News.--In the spring of 1878 the city of Omaha had presented an apparently favorable opening for the establishment of a second evening paper. Convinced of the feasibility of such an enterprise Mr. Fred Nye, of Fremont, Neb., who had for some years previous been engaged in editing the Fremont Tribune, made the proper arrangements and on the 29th of May gave out the first edition of the Omaha Evening News, with Mr. J. C. Wheeler as city editor. The new venture took well from the start and was soon recognized as an equal to any of the city papers in enterprise and intellectual tone. The subscription lists ran up to about 2,000 copies. The policy of the News was unswerving Republicanism, and the interests of the party in the State of Nebraska were materially enhanced by the influence of the News. Under the direction of Mr. Nye, with W. H. Kent as city editor, and J. C. Campbell, business manager, the paper met with good success through the following year. Early in the winter of 1879-80, the News espoused with great vigor the candidacy of Mr. James G. Blaine for the presidency, and labored in this direction unremittingly up to the date of the Chicago Convention, the Blaine delegation from the State being partially due to the influence of this paper. Shortly after Garfields' nomination Mr. Nye received flattering proposals from the management of the Omaha Republican to become associated with that sheet. These offers were accepted and on the 20th of June, 1880, the last number of the News was issued.
The Evening Telegram.--This latest acquisition to the field of daily journalism was established in May, 1880, by S. F. Donnelly and H. S. Smith, under the firm name of Donnelly & Smith. It was in a great sense an experiment, but its publishers had sufficient confidence in the undertaking to go into it unhesitatingly, and they found others of the same opinion. They had help in the establishment of the enterprise and it is a source of pride to them that the best men in Omaha were the men who rendered the needed assistance to make the Telegram a possibility. It was the belief of the publishers from the outset that a ten-cent paper in Omaha was bound to be a success ultimately, if not at once. The result has justified that belief. In the face of many difficulties and with an amount of labor which only those who have been through the same experience can understand, the paper has been made a success.
One event was of signal advantage to the Telegram, say the publishers. It lost a city printing contract, which was let to a contemporary at a price of 200 percent above that named by the Telegram. The manner in which the contract was secured, they add, exposed it to criticism and condemnation by citizens, large numbers of whom subscribed for the Telegram.
Immediately following the award of this contract the Telegram's city list was increased to 1,800, and has steadily advanced since. It claims to have the largest city subscription list of any newspaper in Omaha, and until within a brief period, the Telegram made no effort to secure a State circulation, although many subscriptions had been sent in. Some time ago a competent canvasser was sent out, and the result was large lists in Plattsmouth, Lincoln, South Bend, Louisville, Seward, Fremont, Grand Island, Ashland, Greenwood, York, Aurora, Central City, Schuyler, Kearney, Columbus, North Platte, and other towns. The Telegram reaches most of the business men and many of the families in these towns, and will within a few weeks have a circulation in every part of the State.
From time to time, as the success of the paper has justified, additional outlays have been made for the benefit of readers. The important arrangement by which a full telegraphic report was received had an immediate effect in building up subscriptions. On every Saturday an eight page daily is issued, four pages of which are devoted to choice miscellaneous matter for Sunday reading. Early in January, 1882, the publishers decided, in spite of the enviable position, for a new paper, which the Telegram had gained, to suspend publication. This step, which was largely due to lack of sufficient capital, was greatly regretted by the many friends of the bright little daily.
The Saturday Evening Times.--A weekly paper devoted to social gossip, amusements and the arts, was established by H. R. Persinger on the 9th of July, 1881, and has attained a healthy circulation. It required no small amount of courage to undertake to establish the paper at that dull time of the year, with business and society at their lowest ebb, and the heat over 100 degrees in the shade. But notwithstanding these unfavorable conditions and the usual opposition, the Times flourished, and street sales advanced from 300 to 850 copies. In November following, Mr. Persinger disposed of his venture to Mr. George Wise, who after a short time discontinued it.
The Nebraska Watchman.--A secular weekly was established January 7, 1870, as the successor of the Cass County Democrat, by F. M. McDonough, by whom it was issued in Plattsmouth on Thursday. He remained there until February, 1879, when the paper under his direction was located at Council Bluffs. Here he began the publication of a daily in addition to the weekly, where he remained until June, when, to use his own words, "it flattened out as flat as a pancake" financially. He gathered up the fragments and removed to Omaha, where the paper has met with success and encouragement, being published on Saturdays.
The Watchman is a six-column quarto, devoted to colonization, immigration, education, science, art, literature and politics. It has a weekly circulation of 1,700 copies and represents a valuation estimated at $3,000.
Danish Pioneer.--Issued on Wednesdays was established August 1, 1872, by Mark Hansen at its present locality, No. 711 South Seventh street, assisted by Hans Miller who remained, however, but a brief period when Mr. Hansen assumed entire charge. At that date the Pioneer was issued as a folio of twenty-eight columns and, as now, Democratic in politics. On the 1st of January, 1877, increasing business and consequent demand for space necessitated the paper's enlargement and Mr. Hansen accordingly increased the folio to a quarto, containing with its regular weekly supplement an aggregate of fifty-six columns. The Pioneer is the organ of the Danish residents, not only of Nebraska and the Northwest, but of the country. It is devoted to literature, science, art, politics and news, and presents an appearance of typographical excellence remarkable. It enjoys a weekly circulation of 10,000 copies and is held in value at about $40,000.
Omaha Telegraph.--A German weekly issued every Thursday by Paul Weinhagen and Otto Stroetzel, the former of whom is one of the founders of the paper. The Telegraph was established on the 30th of September, 1880, by Mr. Weinhagen, with L. W. Habercom as an assistant. It was originally designed to issue a daily in addition to the weekly, but this was not fully concluded upon when the regular "make up" of the latter being "ready" was struck off. It is a quarto of fifty six columns, independent in politics with a tendency toward Democracy, controlling a large constituency in the city as also in the State and the Northwest, and is the largest German publication in Nebraska. The editorial management is at present under the care of Mr. Weinhagen, Mr. Stroetzel being an attache of Puck, Kepler's New York comic weekly.
The weekly circulation is 1,800 copies, and the property owned by the management represents an investment of $5,000.
Westra Posten.--A Swedish paper published weekly, on Thursdays, was established July 24, 1879, by Landergren & Nordwall, with a view to supply the demand for a paper of this nationality throughout the State of Nebraska. The firm, as above stated, continued the Posten's publication jointly until January 27, 1880, when Mr. Nordwall retired, the remaining partner assuming entire charge and responsibility since that date.
The Posten is a folio of twenty-eight columns, absolutely independent in politics, and an earnest advocate of every enterprise calculated to promote interest of a local or State character.
The circulation is stated at 2,800 and the value of property $1,500.
In addition to the above there are the Omaha Commercial Record, semi-monthly, C. L. Hall, editor and proprietor; The Pokrok Zapadu, weekly, John Rosicky, editor; Omaha Post, tri-weekly, Carl Grandpre, editor; the Rural Nebraska, monthly, W. C. B. Allen, editor; and the Church Guardian, a monthly publication of the Episcopal Church, of which the Rev. James Patterson is editor.