Physical Character | Early Settlement | Indian Troubles|
County Organization | Official Roster | County Statistics|
Railroads | District Schools | Taxation
County Poor Department | County Societies
Lincoln: Early History | Incorporation | Official Roster|
City Institutions | Post Office
Lincoln (cont.): University of Nebraska|
Lincoln (cont.): University of Nebraska (cont.)|
Lincoln (cont.): Insane Hospital|
Nebraska State Penitentiary | The Second Revolt
Lincoln (cont.): Public Schools | Fire Department|
The Press | Churches
Lincoln (cont.): Societies, Associations, Etc.|
Temperance Societies | Musical Societies
Business Interests | Banks | Hotels
Lincoln (cont.): |
Wholesale and Manufacturing Establishments
Biographical Sketches- ABBOTT~ALLEN
10 - 24:
** Lincoln Biographical Sketches ** (cont.)|
| ALFORD~BONNELL | BOHANON~CARR |
| CARTER~CUMMINGS | DAILEY~FEDEWA |
| FULLER~GRIMM | GULICK~HOGE |
| HOLMES~KEELER | KELLY~McCONNIFF |
| McCORD~NANCE | NEWMAN~PHILLIPS |
| PHILPOTT~RANDLE | RAYMOND~SCOTT |
| SEATON~STRICKLAND | SWAN~WALSH |
| WEBER~WUNDERLICH |
Bennet: Churches | Societies ||
| Biographical Sketches - ALLSTOT~GRIBLING
Bennett: Biographical Sketches - HANSON~PIPER|
Bennett: Biographical Sketches - RHEA~WILSON|
Waverly: Biographical Sketches|
Firth: Biographical Sketches|
Roca | Other Points
Grant Precinct | Saltillo Precinct | Stockton Precinct
List of Illustrations in Lancaster County Chapter
"The success of the university during the chancellorship of Dr. Benton was the more remarkable, as difficulties unexpected and unforeseen arose that naturally greatly interfered with the attendance of students. Among these obstacles to success were the locust raids of 1872, '73, and '74. Owing to these raids the agricultural classes, which constitute the majority of the people, were financially straightened, and were unable to send their children to school away from home. At the same time occurred, or commenced, the great financial crisis of this decade, during which time shrinkage in the value of real estate and other property occurred to such an extent that many people who had been opulent were impoverished. That the university should grow during such times and under such circumstances is a remarkable feature in its history, and speaks volumes for its management and those who were doing its educational work. It should also be remembered that when the university was opened in 1871 the population of the State was only 133,000, and at the close of Chancellor Benton's administration in 1876 it had increased to 357,747. The per cent of students to the whole population has never been higher-seldom indeed so high. The first year it was almost one to every 1,000 of the population. the last year it averaged almost the same. At the same rate we should now have an attendance during the year of 450 students.
"One other character connected with the early history of the university deserves special mention. I refer to Prof. O. C. Dake, the first professor of English literature. Before his election to the chair which he adorned, he published a volume of poems, whose title was "Nebraska Legends." He found abundant materials here to inspire his muse, and loved to pour out his thoughts and emotions in inspired song. His reading was exhaustive, especially in literature and history, and in some departments of theology. For he had been an active priest in the Episcopal Church, and was still in connection with that body. He was exceptionally open, candid, courageous, and impulsive. No man ever doubted where he stood, or what he thought. Tenacious in his opinions and convictions, he never took an unfair advantage of an opponent. Owing to his impulsive character, and sometimes speaking and writing without careful study, he laid himself open to attack. He was ready to give blows and also to receive them. His nature was so generous, sympathetic, and noble that no one could long remain in his society without loving him. The poetic temperament was his in a high degree. The second volume of poems which he published during his connection with the university demonstrated that his muse was increasing in intensity, brilliancy, and depth. It received many encomiums from literary critics. Had it been produced in the centers of literary activity, or any portion of the populous East, this volume would have been sought, and the edition soon exhausted. The number, however, in Nebraska at that time who appreciated and loved poetry for its own sake was comparatively small. And yet the number of educated people, compared to the whole population, was exceptionally high. Poetry, however, was not then the rage. There were few who could give an independent judgment of the merits of a poem. Owing to this and other causes this volume, which contains many exquisite thoughts, attracted comparatively little attention. I have no doubt, however, that in the years to come, when there is a greater love for fine scholarship, and greater appreciation of culture, when the masses will be raised closer to Prof. Dake's level, his works will be sought, and resurrected from the comparative oblivion in which they are now buried. As an illustration of the character of the man I will quote his estimate of what manhood should be from his 'Nebraska Legends:'
'Men grow by independent thought,|
Self-centered action unconstrained;
Far greater he whose lines are wrought
By purpose in himself contained
Than he who, by another's will,
Some petty place must daily fill--
Some tiresome, endless, dull routine
That makes him but a mere machine.
Give me a hut with scanty cheer,
Far on the blooming, wild frontier,
A yoke of cattle and a cow,
And acres of my own to plow--
A dog, a gun, the sweet blue skies.
And Nature's charms and mysteries;
So I may ride, or sit, or play,
Or read my book each stormy day;
And I shall feel myself a king.'
"Had Prof. Dake's life been prolonged to the present, his genius would have produced riper and more luscious poetic fruit. At no time during his life was he developing so rapidly as during his last years. He frequently conversed with me about the future, and sometimes expressed a longing desire to experience soon the glories of another life. His sensitive organization, susceptible to every physical and social influence, quivering constantly with pain or delight, rapidly wore itself out and prepared him for that attack of paralysis which removed him from earth. But he still lives in the hearts of those whom he influenced for good, and in his works, which are destined to delight and cultivate more souls in the future than they have yet in the past.
"If time permitted I would love to dwell on the work and character of Prof. S. H. Manly, who was a member of the first faculty of the university. Unfortunately for him, he was suffering from nervous prostration when he came to the university, from which he never recovered. Much of the time while he was here he could only do partial work, his classes being heard principally by Prof. Church, and occasionally one by myself and Prof. Dake. Under these circumstances he could not do himself justice. He was, however, a fine Greek scholar, and his range of reading had been wide. He was singularly amiable, courteous and generous. Few men have ever so constantly observed the amenities of life as Prof. Manly. Students universally loved him. There is no doubt whatever, had his health enabled him to prosecute his work with vigor, he would greatly have distinguished himself. Finding at last that there was no hope of his restoration while holding his professorship, he resigned his chair early in 1875. Faculty, students and regents parted from him with great regret. Invalid as he had been during the whole of his connection with the university, he still exercised over it by the influence of his noble character the happiest influence.
"Prof. Church, the only other original member of the faculty besides myself, who is still with us, fortunately for the university, is too close at hand to be done up in this address. I hope never to have that privilege, as in the order of nature I shall be gathered to my fathers before him. Prof. Hitchcock, who came here in the second year of the univeristy, and Profs. Bailey and Thompson, who came still later, are so near to us in time that no discussion of them is called for on this occasion.
"It has long since been observed that the best endowment of a university is the endowment of commanding and noble intellect and character. Such an endowment alone makes a university possible--makes it the center of intellectual light and quickening influence. With such characters this university was blessed in its early history. Whether it has fulfilled the promise of its youth it is not for me to say on this occasion. It is not, however, improper to express the conviction that after years will recognize the fact that even now magnificent work is being done, work that will blossom into beauty and noble achievements. It is one of the infirmities of mankind that character often is not appreciated or understood until it is separated by distance or removed by death. I have myself even yet, after many disappointments, unbounded confidence in the final success of this institution. It is a creature and a child of the State and the age. The training already given here, the young men and women sent forth from these walls into the battle of life, the literary work, and scientific work done here, are an earnest of a glorious future. Students themselves, their character, their work, their attainments, their abilities acquired in the studies and literary contests of the university, along with that of the faculty, are a force that must lift this university in the order of nature into a prominence and a power for good, second to no other in the great republic."
Prof. Samuel Aughey, Ph. D., L. L. D., who delivered the above address, was one of the first professors, and since he has been too modest to mention his own deserts, it is proper that they should be here stated. Like Chancellor Benton's, Prof. Aughey's whole interest has been centered in the success of the university and his labors in its behalf have been most arduous and constant. No small amount of its success attained is due to his efforts. He is most thorough and able instructor in his department, his love for which, together with his intellectual acquirements, make him a true professor. Besides his labors in the class-room, he has done much for the cabinet and museum as a curator. His profound research in the domain of natural science, has given him a front rank among the practical thinkers of the times.
Prof. Hiram Collier, A. M., L. L. D., professor of chemistry and physics, died in June, 1879, and was succeeded about a year later by Alonzo Collin, A. M. Prof. Collier was an able scholar in his department, and his taking off was a loss to the university.
Chancellor Fairfield, successor of Dr. Benton, has labored most faithfully in the interests of the university and with admirable success.
Appended hereto is a list of the regents and faculty. The members ex-officio are: His Excellency, Albinus Nance, Governor; Hon. W. W. W. Jones, Superintendent Public Instruction.
Board of Regents.--Hon. Charles A. Holmes, term expires in 1883, Tecumseh; Hon. N. R. Persinger, term expires in 1883, Central City; Hon. John L. Carson, term expires in 1885, Brownsville; Hon. J. W. Gannett, term expires in 1885, Omaha.
Officers of the Board: Hon. Charles A. Holmes, President; J. Stuart Dales, Secretary.
Members of the Faculty and other officers.--Edmund B. Fairfield, S. T. D., L. L. D., chancellor and professor of mental, moral and political philosophy; Samuel Aughey, Ph. D., L. L. D., dean of college faculty, and professor of natural sciences; Henry E. Hitchcock, A. M., Ph. D., professor mathematics; George E. Church, A. M., professor of the Latin language and literature; George McMillan, A. M., Ph. D., professor of the Greek language and literature; Alonzo Collin, A. M., professor of general chemistry and physics; Harrington Emerson, A. M., professor of modern languages; Isaac T. Webster, First Lieutenant U. S. A., professor of military science and tactics; George E. Wooderry, A. B., professor of Anglo-Saxon and rhetoric, and instructor in English composition; George E. Howard, A. M., professor of English literature and instructor in elocution; Charles N. Little, A. B., tutor in analytical chemistry and mathematics; Miss Ellen Smyth, A. M., instructor in Latin and Greek; S. R. Thompson, A. M., professor of agriculture and dean of the Industrial College; Harvey Culbertson, M. S. B. Ag., superintendent of the farm and professor of horticulture; Miss Emma Richardson, teacher of painting and drawing; Samuel B. Hohmann, director of the musical conservatory; Mrs. Adelaide Dearborn, teacher of elocution.
By an act of Congress approved April 19, 1864, in words as follows: That seventy sections of land (44,800 acres) shall be set apart and reserved for the use and support of a State university, and to be appropriated and applied as the Legislature may prescribe, for the purpose named and for no other purpose; and by virtue of an act of the Legislature approved February 15, 1869, accepting a donation of 90,000 acres of land, granted by the Congress of the United States to the State of Nebraska, for the purpose of endowing a college for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, the State became entitled to the aforesaid land to be used in establishing and supporting a State university and industrial college.
By the act of the Legislature approved February 15, 1869, as above, and an act amendatory thereto, approved February 19, 1877, the regents are authorized to establish five departments or colleges, as follows:
(1.) A college of literature, science and art. (2.) An industrial college, embracing agriculture, practical science, civil engineering and the mechanic arts. (3.) A college of law. (4.) A college of medicine. (5.) A college of fine arts.
Of these only the first two have as yet been organized.
The university aims to secure to all who may avail themselves of its advantages, an opportunity for liberal culture in literature, science, and such technical and professional courses as may from time to time be established. These advantages are offered to all free of charge for tuition, without regard to race or sex, or place of residence, on the condition of their possessing the intellectual and moral qualifications requisite for admission to such an institution.
Degrees.--Of the first department organized, that of literature, science and art, there are four courses of study of four years each; namely, a classical, a scientific, a Latin scientific and a Greek scientific.
In the department of agriculture, there are two courses, one of three years, and a course of one year, therefore the following degrees granted, namely: 1. The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred on students who complete the classical course. 2. That of Bachelor of Science on students who complete the regular scientific course. 3. That of Bachelor of Philosophy on students who complete the Latin scientific course. 4. That of Bachelor of Letters on student who complete the literary course. 5. The degree of Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Philosophy or Master of Letters is conferred respectively on Bachelors of Arts, or Science, or Philosophy or Letters, who shall have pursued a post graduate course of study for one year, under the direction of the faculty, or upon graduates of three years' standing, who shall have been engaged during that time in literary, scientific or professional studies.
The act of Congress of July 2, 1862, entitled, "An act donating lands to the several States and Territories, which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts," states that "the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts in such manner as the Legislature of the State may prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life."
This University is endowed under the provisions of this act, and instruction in military tactics is therefore necessarily a part of its curriculum. And in conformity with the requirements of the "act," a military department was early organized, and is at present in a flourishing condition. Even if the students are never called upon to display their knowledge of the art of war on the battle field, an opportunity for which it is earnestly hoped will never come, the time employed will be most profitably spent by the exercise it will afford, and the good habits it is likely to create.
An officer of the regular army--a graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point--has been detailed by the President, to act as Professor of Military Science and Tactics. All male students not excused by the chancellor on account of physical disability or conscientious scruples against military exercises, or any other good and sufficient reason, are required positively to take six terms of drill.
The military organization is at present composed of all male students in the regular courses, in the Freshman, Sophomore and Junior classes of the academic department. The students are required to have the uniform adopted by the faculty, or the coat, cap and gloves, and dark pants of any quality. The spring and fall terms are employed for out door drill. The winter term is occupied with recitations in infantry tactics and field fortifications, with lectures on military science. The department is supplied with arms and equipments for 100 men.
The University building is a very handsome brick structure, with sandstone finish, four stories high, including the mansard roof, and the basement, which is principally above ground. The foundation was originally of sandstone, but that was found to be inadequate to sustain the superstructure. It was removed and limestone substituted after the rest of the building was completed. With its sandstone finish, mansard roof and tower, the edifice presents a very pleasing appearance.
The grounds are large, including four blocks, and well ornamented with a large variety of forest and evergreen trees, young, but thrifty. Graveled driveways and winding walks cross the grounds.
The internal arrangement is very good, and for the present there is sufficient room, but if the State continues to grow for the next decade as it has in the last, it will be altogether insufficient to accommodate its hundreds of students, provided the attendance remains at its present per cent, which is more apt to be increased that diminished.
For its age the University is well supplied with valuable apparatus for illustrating, most of the important principles of chemistry and physics. Desirable apparatus is very expensive, and years, in every university, are required to provide a complete set of apparatus for illustrating all the departments of science. A wise selection has thus far been made, and the purpose is to increase its facilities in this respect from year to year, as rapidly as possible.
In the chemical laboratory there are ample provisions made for illustrative experiments, and for instruction in practical and analytical chemistry. Each student practicing in the laboratory is furnished with chemicals at cost. Extensive additions have recently been made to the conveniences and completeness of the laboratory, so that it now ranks among the first in the West.
Spacious rooms have been set apart for the uses of the cabinet and museum, which have already come to be widely known for their valuable and rare specimens of the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms.
Nearly as the laboratory is to chemistry and physics, so is the cabinet and museum to the different branches of natural philosophy, namely: botany, zoology, entomology and geology. Therefore the interests of these departments have been carefully looked after, and already over 50,000 specimens have been classified and arranged. Additions are constantly being made. The herbarium is now furnished with more than 2,200 different species of the flora of this State, and this valuable and rare collection is constantly being increased. The cabinet of etomology contains about 5,000 specimens, affording excellent facilities for illustrating insect life in this State. Specimens of all the known land and fresh-water shells of the State have been placed in the cabinet, and a collection of marine shells has also been begun. The board of regents have made provisions for collecting specimens of the birds and animals of the State, of which a large number have been handsomely and securely mounted, and arranged in the cabinet.
All the known fossils of the carboniferous rocks of the State, together with the complete Dakota group, form a valuable and interesting collection. A large number of the principal forms of the remaining subdivisions of the cretaceous and tertiary deposits form an interesting and pleasing group for the casual spectator and an interesting study for the student. The mineralogical collection contains the principal typical forms which, with a large variety of rare and curious specimens, afford unusual facilities for study in this department. A number of Indian relics form a portion of the cabinet, which in a few years, when the exiled aborigines of this fair State are no more, will be full of interest to him who, gazing upon them, reflects upon the strange mutations of time, and considers the sad fate of the "red man" and the good fortune of his white brother. The Patent Office has made an interesting contribution of models.
The library as yet is not very extensive but is composed of books selected with the utmost care to meet the most urgent wants of the students. It is required by law that an annual appropriation be made by the board to increase the number of books. The library is open six hours a day five days in the week, for reading and consultation, and certain classes are permitted to take books for use to their rooms. There is attached to the library a well arranged reading room supplied with newspapers and the leading magazines of the day.
The farm contains three hundred and twenty acres of good land about one and a half miles northeast of the city of Lincoln. The land is all under improvement, well situated and admirably adapted to the wants of an agricultural school. It is provided with a complete outfit of teams and owns numerous implements for purposes of cultivation of the most recent patterns.
The greater part of the farm is carried on in such a manner as to show the working plans of a good property, managed with a view to profit.
It is not intended to furnish here a model which every student is expected to imitate, but rather by bringing under the daily observation of the students a good, progressive, improving, well managed farm, to furnish them hints and suggestions which they can use advantageously in after life. The value of the farm products is governed by supply and demand, hence there can be no rules established for sowing to the best advantage other than the prevailing prices, but there is a great deal to be learned about farming in reference to rotation of crops and the securing of the largest yield. An educated farmer is to be envied for he enjoys more privileges than any other man. It is well, therefore, to look after the educational advantages of farm life. Most of the work is performed by students who are paid for their labor just what it is worth in the market.
There is also an experimental department. A certain portion of the farm and garden is set apart for trying experiments in the cultivation of different kinds of crops and plants. But it is exceedingly difficult to arrive at just estimations in proving which is the best way to coax mother earth to produce the most prolific fruitage as the labor she performs is dependent upon the sun, moon, winds and clouds. This department is managed with a view to the discovery of new and improved methods of carrying on farm work and also the development of fundamental principles--the scientific basis of all sound agricultural practice. While the aim is at the discovery of new agricultural knowledge, the endeavor is also to teach students correct ideas of the importance of careful experiments, and to train them to habits of close observation and study.
There is no doubt but that the agricultural interests of the State will be greatly benefited by this department of the University. The drain upon the State treasury will be nothing in comparison to the returns the State at large will receive from her more profitable farming, besides the reputation it will have abroad, which will tend to populate its extensive fertile prairies.
At the farm the agricultural student can find a pleasant home far enough from the city to be out of the way of its temptations to idleness and worse, and yet near enough to enjoy all its literary and public advantages. With the advantages of quiet and retirement for study, the student has still the opportunity to be a part of a young and growing university.
The university boarding hall, erected in 1879, is situated within three blocks of the university campus. It is ninety-four by fifty-four feet, three stories high above the basement, and provides both room and board for seventy ladies. In addition to this, it furnishes board for eighty gentlemen, finding rooms elsewhere. The board is $2.50 per week, with room which has an ample closet and is furnished with a stove, a bedstead, chairs, a table, a washstand and a coal-box.
Tuition is free to all, whether citizens of Nebraska or not, in all departments of instruction given in the university, except music, painting and ornamental drawing. As in other universities, a matriculation fee is charged. It is $5 here, exceedingly low, and is paid by each student at the time of entering, which entitles him to all the privileges of the university (so long as he desires to use them).
There are in connection with the university two literary societies, the University Union and the Palladian. They are under supervision of the faculty, but elect their own officers and transact their own business, having each a State charter. Their halls are commodious and tastefully furnished. The societies are valuable aids to the students in literary and rhetorical culture.
The Hesperian Studentis a monthly paper published by the students, and has been found especially useful as a means of communication with the public concerning the condition and work of the university. The paper has been noted for the high order of its literary and scientific articles.
In an address delivered before the regents, faculty and citizens of Lincoln at the Opera House, June 22, 1876, Chancellor Edmund b. Fairfield, on the occasion of his inauguration, said: "Many of you will live to see the day when library and cabinets, now justly termed respectable, will have outgrown their present dimensions as a premium Cochin China fowl has outgrown the egg from which he hatched a year ago. But unlike the Cochin China, which has reached its maturity, they will continue to grow, and with even more rapid strides. Were I gifted with prophetic vision, so that I could describe to you the University of Nebraska as it will be in the month of June, 1900, the prophecy would be rejected as the dream of a dreamer, and the prophet condemned as a builder of castles in the air. Be it so; but remember, please, that no castle ever stood firm on the rock, a thing of reality, till it had first floated in the air as the mere creature of somebody's brain."
Addressing the graduates present, he concluded with these eloquent thoughts:
"Enjoy your self-congratulations over your past attainments, my young friends, while you can. This is not long for you if you continue to make attainments worth achieving. But while, as the years increase, you will enjoy much less the self-consciousness of knowing a good deal, you will enjoy more and more the visions of truth, and beauty, and God, that shall be given. It will be our joy to go with you, as far as we may, through the vast temple of truth, which is but the temple of God, studying with you the wonders of its architecture, the majesty of its columns, the beauty of its finish, enchanted by the celestial light that shines everywhere through its marvelous windows, looking forward forever--for man's conscious immortality forbids that we should live only for the hour--to the coming day when there shall be opened to us the golden gates of that vaster temple, whose light is neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, but whose wide expanse is flooded with the glory of the Eternal."